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Hybrid journal

Affiliated to the Italian Society of Urology (SIU)
Indexed/Abstracted in: EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), Scopus
Impact Factor 4.9


pISSN 2724-6051

eISSN 2724-6442



Minerva Urology and Nephrology is a hybrid journal which publishes scientific papers on nephrology and urology. Manuscripts may be submitted in the form of Minerva opinion editorials, editorial comments, original articles, video/illustrated articles, review articles and letters to the Editor. The journal aims to provide its readers with papers of the highest quality and impact through a process of careful peer review and editorial work. Duties and responsibilities of all the subjects involved in the editorial process are summarized at Publication ethics. Manuscripts are expected to comply with the instructions to authors which conform to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Editors by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Papers should be submitted directly to the online Editorial Office at the Edizioni Minerva Medica website: https://www.minervamedicaonlinesubmission.it. The journal does not apply any charges for online submission. Authors are requested to choose a corresponding author. The corresponding author is responsible for the following requirements: managing all communications between the journal and all co-authors during the manuscript submission, peer review, publication process and after publication; ensuring that the names of authors, their arrangement and affiliations are correct; ensuring that all listed authors have approved the manuscript before submission; making sure all permissions to reproduce previously published material have been obtained from the copyright owner; making sure disclosures, declarations, statements from all authors are included in the manuscript as appropriate. Although for technical and organizational reasons the corresponding author has primary responsibility for correspondence with the journal, copies of the most significant correspondence will be sent to all listed authors.
Authors are welcome to suggest 2-3 suitable reviewers when they submit their manuscript by providing in the covering letter their names, institutions and e-mail addresses. When suggesting reviewers, authors should make sure they have a high degree of expertise and independence in the field of the study presented. Please note that suggestions are welcome and may help facilitate the peer-review process but the journal cannot guarantee to use them.
Submission statement
Upon submission of the manuscript, authors will be asked to fill in and submit a Submission Statement.
Submission of the manuscript means that the paper is original and has not yet been totally or partially published, is not currently under evaluation elsewhere for simultaneous consideration, is free of plagiarism and does not infringe any copyright or right of privacy. If accepted, the manuscript will not be published elsewhere either wholly or in part in any form or language except in case of specific agreements. All authors are responsible for their research. The manuscript must be approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as, tacitly or explicitly, by the responsible authorities of the institution where the work was carried out. Specific discipline rules should be followed by authors for acquiring, selecting and processing data. Results should be presented clearly, honestly and without fabrication or inappropriate data manipulation.
Duplicate or multiple publication

Splitting the data concerning one study in more than one publication could be acceptable if authors justify the choice with good reasons both in the cover letter and in the manuscript. Authors should state what new scientific contribution is contained in their manuscript compared to any previously published article derived from the same study. Relevant previously published articles should be included in the cover letter of the currently submitted article. All submissions are subject to review with Crossref Similarity Check powered by iThenticate.
Permissions to reproduce previously published material
Material (such as figures) taken from other publications must be accompanied in the cover letter by permission of the copyright owner for both print and online format with complete reference information (for example, a footnote at the bottom of the figure must credit the original source). Any material received without such permission will be assumed to have been originally created by the authors.
Statement of human rights
All articles reporting studies that involve human subjects must include a statement at the beginning of methods section, clearly indicating that the study has been approved by the institutional research ethics committee before experiment was started and that has been conducted in accordance with the principles set forth in the Helsinki Declaration. This paragraph must contain the following information: the identification details of the ethics committee; the name of the chairperson of the ethics committee; the protocol number that was attributed by the ethics committee and the date of approval by the ethics committee.
Patient consent
Authors should include at the beginning of the methods section of their manuscript a statement clearly indicating that patients have given their informed consent for participation in the research study.
Every precaution must be taken to protect the privacy of patients. Authors should obtain permission from the patients for the publication of photographs or other material that might identify them. If necessary, a copy of such permission may be requested.
Statement on welfare of animals
When reporting experiments on animals, authors should include a statement at the beginning of the methods section indicating that the study was approved by the institutional research ethics committee and specifying the guidelines for care of animals that have been followed.
Conflicts of interest
A conflict of interest occurs when any financial interest may affect the content of an article. This does not imply that any financial involvement with a sponsor that supported the research or funded a consultation is problematic.
To promote transparency and avoid any possible bias of the readers towards the article, each author must disclose any potential conflict of interest both in the Journal Article Publishing Agreement Form and at the end of the manuscript file in the notes under the “Conflicts of interest” section. Potential conflicts of interest can be directly or indirectly related to an article and may include but are not limited to research funds from organizations that have financial interest in the results of publication, financial support for attending symposia or educational programs, consultant relationships, employment funds, personal financial interests. The conflict of interest disclosure should follow the recommendations of the ICMJE. If there is no conflict of interest, the authors should state at the end of the manuscript file in the notes under the “Conflicts of interest” section: “The authors certify that there is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript”.
All sources of funding should be acknowledged at the end of the manuscript file in the notes under the “Funding” section. The role of the sponsor, if any, in the study design, in the acquisition analysis and interpretation of data, in drafting the manuscript should be briefly described. If the sponsor has not been specifically involved in the research this should be stated.
Authorship and contributorship
Authors and contributors must meet the criteria for authorship and contributorship established by the ICMJE. The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on all the following 4 criteria: 1) substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; 2) drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) final approval of the version to be published; 4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All persons (individual authors) and organizations (collective authors) that meet the 4 criteria of the ICMJE for authorship must be listed in the byline of the article. Individual authors that are part of a collective author can be listed at the end of the manuscript in the Notes under the “Group author members” section. All persons that meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged as contributors at the end of the manuscript in the Notes under the “Acknowledgements” section. Written permission to be acknowledged must be obtained by the authors from all the acknowledged individuals.
Authors must specify the contribution of each person that has participated to the study at the end of the manuscript file in the notes under the “Authors’ contribution” section. Full approval of the manuscript by all authors should be explicitly stated by including the following statement “All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript”.
Changes of authorship
Addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors’ names in the byline after manuscript submission must be sent to the journal Manager by the corresponding author and must include the reason why the author’s name should be added or removed or rearranged, written confirmation from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement, written confirmation from the author that has been added that he/she meets the criteria for authorship. In case of addition or removal of authors this include confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests will be taken into consideration only if received from the corresponding author. After online publication of the manuscript it is not generally permitted to add, remove or rearrange authors. In case this is exceptionally allowed, the same procedure will be followed and an erratum will be published.
The journal will not be in a position to investigate in case of an authorship issue before or after publication and will therefore raise this issue with the responsible authorities of the institution where the work was carried out. In any case, the journal will abide by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and reserves the right to withdraw the manuscript.
Data availability
To promote transparency of data supporting the results reported in the article, the journal encourages authors to provide a statement of data availability, provided that the research data can be made publicly. This should be included at the end of the “Materials and Methods” section under a separate “Data availability” subheading. Data availability statement should include information on where data can be found, whether data are deposited on publicly available data research repositories or they are available on reasonable request from the corresponding author (examples of data availability statements: 1) the data associated with the paper are available in the [NAME] repository; 2) the data associated with the paper are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request; 3) the data associated with the paper will be available in the [NAME] repository following an embargo period). Such data will not be published as Supplementary Digital Material.
Fundamental errors
Any significant error must be brought to the journal attention by the authors. Depending on the nature of the error, the journal will decide whether to publish a correction or a retraction.
Potential misconduct
Examples of inappropriate acts include but are not limited to fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, repetitive publication, obfuscation of significant research results, violating requirements for experimentation with human subjects or animals, failing to comply with authorship requirements, failing to report significant conflicts of interest.
In case of a suspicion of misbehavior or alleged fraud, the journal will follow the COPE guidelines. If deemed necessary, the publisher will take one of the following actions including but not limited to: rejection if the manuscript is still under evaluation, publication of an erratum, a retraction if the article has already been published online. In case of erratum or retraction, the article will be maintained on the journal site and in the abstracting and indexing services as corrected or retracted and the reason will be given in the published erratum or retraction note.
Open access
In case the manuscript is accepted for publication, Minerva Medica will offer authors the option either to publish the article open access or to follow the traditional subscription-based route. Regardless of what publication model is chosen, the manuscript will be submitted to the standard review process and will be accepted or rejected on its scientific merits alone.
In the first case your manuscript will be freely available online upon publication to anyone anywhere. Authors will retain copyright and will be asked to sign a License Agreement. Minerva Medica will distribute the article under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY-NC) which allows users to read, download and share the work as long as it is properly referenced and the use is not commercial. Authors will be asked to pay an Article Processing Charge (APC) which may be paid by an institution or a funder. Authors can publish under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) if required by their funder.
If authors opt for the traditional subscription-based route the manuscript will be made available to institutions and individuals who purchased a subscription or paid to read specific articles.
Self-archiving policy
The authors of articles published via the subscription-based route are permitted to self-archive the preprint and postprint version of their research in several ways provided that they comply to the Self-archiving Policy about what can be archived, where and when.
Upon acceptance of the manuscript, authors will be asked to fill in and sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement. For open access choice, authors will retain copyright and will be asked to fill in and sign a License Agreement.
The Publisher, Editors, and Editorial Board cannot be held responsible for the opinions and contents of publications contained in this journal.
The authors implicitly agree to their paper being peer-reviewed. All manuscripts will be reviewed by Editorial Board members who reserve the right to reject the manuscript without entering the review process in the case that the topic, the contents, the format or ethical aspects are inappropriate. In order to ensure accuracy and transparency, every step of the peer review process is fully documented and recorded. If modifications to the manuscript are requested, the corresponding author should send to the online Editorial Office the revised manuscript under two separate files, one file containing the revised clean version and another containing both a letter with point-by-point responses to the reviewers’ comments and the revised version with corrections highlighted. Once accepted, all manuscripts are subjected to copyediting and formatting. The authors will be informed by e-mail when proofs are made available online. Other than the proofs, they will also find for consultation only the highlighted manuscript with the changes made by the copyeditor. Correction of proofs should be limited to typographical errors. Substantial changes in content (changes of title and authorship, new results and corrected values, changes in figures and tables) are subject to editorial review. Changes that do not conform to the journal’s style are not accepted. Corrected proofs must be sent back within 3 working days to the online Editorial Office of the journal. In case of delay, the editorial staff of the journal may correct the proofs on the basis of the original manuscript and forward the article to publication.
Publication costs
Subscription-based model
Page charges. Publication of the manuscript is free of charge. Language revision and excessive alterations to proofs will be charged to the authors.
Figure charges. Figures supplied in color will be published in color online free of charge. For color reproduction in the printed version, authors will receive upon request information regarding the costs.
Offprints. Authors will receive instructions on how to order offprints and PDF of the manuscript.
Open access model
APCs. Authors will be asked to pay an Article Processing Charge of €1800.00 (€1500.00 for letters to the Editor), plus VAT or local taxes where applicable. Language revision and excessive alterations to proofs will be charged to the authors. Figures supplied in color will be published in color online free of charge. For color reproduction in the printed version, authors will receive upon request information regarding the costs.
For further information about publication terms please contact the Editorial Office of Minerva Urology and Nephrology, Edizioni Minerva Medica, Corso Bramante 83-85, 10126 Torino, Italy - Phone +39-011-678282 - Fax +39-011-674502. E-mail: journals2.dept@minervamedica.it.
Instructions for the most frequent types of articles submitted to the journal.
Minerva opinion editorials
Commissioned or pre-approved by the Editor in chief, Minerva opinion editorials deal with a subject of topical interest about which the author expresses his/her personal opinion. The article should not be structured into subsections. No more than 1000 words (3 typed, double spaced pages) and up to 10 references and 2 figures will be accepted.
Editorials comments
Submitted or invited by the Editorial Board, editorial comments are invited commentaries on another paper published in the same issue. No more than 1000 words (3 typed, double spaced pages) are allowed, and no references, tables or figures will be accepted. Only one author is allowed. The editorial should quote the related manuscript with a phrase such as “In this issue of MUN, the authors….”.
Original articles
These should be original contributions to the subject. Maximum word count is 3000 words (8 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 30 references will be accepted. The article must be subdivided into the following sections: introduction, materials (patients) and methods, results, discussion, conclusions. The introduction should describe the theoretical background, the aim of the study and the hypothesis to be tested. The materials and methods section should describe in a logical sequence how the study was designed and carried out, how the data were analyzed (what hypothesis was tested, what type of study was carried out, how randomization was done, how the subjects were recruited and chosen, provide accurate details of the main features of treatment, of the materials used, of drug dosages, of unusual equipments, of the statistical method ...). In the results section the answers to the questions posed in the introduction should be given. The results should be reported fully, clearly and concisely supported, if necessary, by figures, graphs and tables. The discussion section should sum up the main results, critically analyze the methods used, compare the results obtained with other published data and discuss the implications of the results. The conclusions should briefly sum up the significance of the study and its future implications. For randomised controlled trials it is suggested to the authors to conform the structure of their paper to the checklist requirements of the following guidelines reported by the CONSORT statement: http://www.consort-statement.org.
Review articles
These articles are commissioned or pre-approved by the Editor in Chief. They should discuss a topic of current interest, outline current knowledge of the subject, analyze different opinions regarding the problem discussed, be up-to-date on the latest data in the literature. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses must be subdivided into the following sections: introduction, evidence acquisition, evidence synthesis, conclusions. For systematic reviews and meta-analyses it is suggested to the authors to conform the structure of their paper to the checklist requirements of the following guidelines reported by the PRISMA statement: http://www.prisma-statement.org. The text should be limited to 4500 words (13 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 50 references will be accepted.
Video/illustrated articles
These articles should describe advanced surgical techniques. In addition to describing the technique in details, early and long-term results and complications must be reported. Each manuscript must be accompanied by an explanatory video and/or well detailed surgical illustrations, which will be included as online-only supplementary materials. The format of these manuscripts should follow the guidelines for original articles.
Short communications
These manuscripts report innovative research or surgical techniques and can include all aspects of urological and nephrological care. Articles best suited are those with concise presentation. These articles are not suited to pilot or incomplete studies with insufficient material for a full manuscript. The text should be unstructured; no more than 1500 words (4 typed, double-spaced pages) excluding abstract, references and legends, 2 figures or tables and 10 references will be accepted.
Letters to the Editor
These may refer to articles already published in the journal or to particularly interesting observations or scientific data that the authors wish to present to readers in a concise form. The text must not be subdivided and should be 500-1000 words (1 to 3 typed, double-spaced pages) not including references, tables, figures. No more than 5 references will be accepted.
The number of figures and tables should be appropriate for the type and length of the paper.
Text file

The text file must be submitted as plain unformatted text. Manuscripts must be drafted according to the template for each type of paper (Minerva opinion editorial, editorial comment, original article, review, video/illustrated article, short communication, letter to the Editor).
The formats accepted are Word (.DOC and .DOCX) and RTF. The text file must contain title, running title, authors’ details, abstract, key words, text, references, notes, tables and titles of tables and figures. Figures should be submitted as separate files. The file should not contain active hyperlinks.
Title and authors’ details
Title: short title, with no abbreviations (no more than 100 characters). Running title: a shortened version of the title (no more than 40 characters) which will be place in a header at the top of the published version. First name in full, middle name’s initial, surname of the authors. Collective name, if any, as last author. Corresponding author marked with an asterisk. Affiliation (section, department and institution) of each author. Name, address, e-mail of the corresponding author.
Abstract and key words
Articles should include an abstract of between 200 and 250 words. For original articles, the abstract should be structured as follows: background (what is already known about the subject and what the study intends to examine), methods (experimental design, patients and interventions), results (what was found), conclusions (meaning of the study). For systematic reviews and meta-analyses, the abstract should be structured as follows: introduction, evidence acquisition, evidence synthesis, conclusions. Key words should refer to the terms from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of MEDLINE/PubMed. No abstracts are required for editorials or letters to the Editor. Abbreviations and references are not permitted in the abstract.
Identify methodologies, equipment (give name and address of manufacturer in brackets) and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to reproduce results. Specify well-known methods including statistical procedures; mention and provide a brief description of published methods which are not yet well known; describe new or modified methods at length; justify their use and evaluate their limits. For each drug generic name, dosage and administration routes should be given. Brand names for drugs should be given in brackets. Units of measurement, symbols and abbreviations must conform to international standards. Measurements of length, height, weight and volume should be given in metric units (meter, kilogram, liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures must be expressed in degrees Celsius. Blood pressure must be expressed in millimeters of mercury. All clinical chemistry measurements should be expressed in metric units using the International System of Units (SI). The use of unusual symbols or abbreviations is strongly discouraged. The first time an abbreviation appears in the text, it should be preceded by the words for which it stands.
It is expected that all cited references will have been read by the authors. The references must contain only the authors cited in the text, be numbered in Arabic numerals and consecutively as they are cited. Bibliographical entries in the text should be quoted using superscripted Arabic numerals. References first cited in a table or figure legend should be numbered so that they will be in sequence with references cited in the text taking into consideration the point where the table or figure is first mentioned. Therefore, those references should not be listed at the end of the reference section but consecutively as they are cited.
References must be set out in the standard format approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org).
Each entry must specify the author’s surname and initials (list all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list only the first six and then “et al.”), the article’s original title, the name of the Journal (according to the abbreviations used by MEDLINE/PubMed), the year of publication, the volume number and the number of the first and last pages. When citing references, please follow the rules for international standard punctuation carefully.
Standard article. Liu H, Li J, Du L, Yang M, Yang D, Li J, et al. Short-term effects of core stability training on the balance and ambulation function of individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Minerva Med 2019;110:216-223
Organization as author. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Ann Int Med 1988;108:258-65.
Both individual authors and organization as author. Castelli E, Fazzi E; SIMFER-SINPIA Intersociety Commission. Recommendations for the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2016;52:691-703.
Issue with supplement. Lacarrubba F, Musumeci Ml, Martorell A, Palmucci S, Petrillo G, Micali G. Role of the Imaging Techniques in the Diagnosis and Staging of Hidradenitis Suppurativa. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018;153 (3 Suppl 2), 20-5.
Books and monographs
For occasional publications, the names of authors, title, edition, place, publisher and year of publication must be given.
Books by one or more authors. Rossi G. Manual of Otorhinolaryngology. Turin: Edizioni Minerva Medica; 1987.
Chapter from book. Donas K, Torsello G. Management of Restenosis after Carotid Artery Stenting and Carotid Endarterectomy. In: Jacobs M (editor). Prevention and management of vascular complications. Turin: Edizioni Minerva Medica; 2011. p.17-20.
Congress proceedings. Novo S, Angelides N, Fletcher J, Roztocil K, editors. A multidisciplinary approach to cardiovascular diseases. Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of the Multidisciplinary Chapter of the International Union of Angiology (IUA); 2014 Oct 2-5; Palermo, Italy. Turin: Edizioni Minerva Medica; 2016.
Electronic material
Standard journal article on the Internet. Williams JS, Brown SM, Conlin PR. Videos in clinical medicine. Blood-pressure measurement. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29;360(5):e6.
Article published electronically ahead of the print version. Di Pierro F, Bertuccioli A, Cavecchia I, Possible therapeutic role of a highly standardized mixture of active compounds derived from cultured Lentinula edodes mycelia (AHCC) in patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2020. [Epub ahead of print]
Standard citation to a book on CD-ROM or DVD. Boglione L, Cariti G, Di Perri G. Interferon-free treatment of hepatitis C patients [CD-ROM]. Torino: Edizioni Minerva Medica; ©2017
Standard citation to a homepage. AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; ©1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/.
Conflicts of interest (mandatory) - any potential conflict of interest should be specified as exactly stated in the Submission Statement. If there is no conflict of interest, this should also be explicitly stated.
Funding (mandatory where applicable) - any funding received to support the research should be mentioned and the role of the sponsor, if any, in the study design, in the acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data, in drafting the manuscript should be briefly described. If the sponsor has not been specifically involved in the research this should be stated.
Authors’ contributions (mandatory) - the contribution of each author should be specified. Full name and surname should be used to refer to the authors. Full approval of the manuscript by all authors should be explicitly stated by including the following statement “All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript”.
Group author members (optional where applicable) - a list of the members of the collective author should be provided; author’s name must be written in full, middle name’s initial in capital letters and surname.
Congresses (mandatory where applicable) - the name of congress and its number, the city in which the congress was held, the date of the congress when the paper has been presented as poster should be mentioned.
Acknowledgements (mandatory where applicable) - Acknowledgements should be provided for persons who do not meet the criteria for authorship (“Participating Investigators”, “Contributors”) and for persons responsible for acquisition of funding; general administrative support, writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading.
Tables should be submitted in the text file. Each table should be created with the Table menu of Microsoft Word table editor, by selecting the number of rows and columns needed. Tabulations are not allowed. Each table must be numbered in Roman numerals and accompanied by the relevant title. Each table must include heading, body and notes, if needed, at the foot of the table. Tables should be referenced in the text sequentially.
Each figure should be submitted as a separate file. Formats accepted: JPEG set at 300 dpi resolution preferred; other formats accepted are TIFF and PDF (high quality). Figures should be numbered in Arabic numerals and accompanied by the relevant title. Titles of figures should be repeated also in the text file. Figure should be referenced in the text sequentially. Reproductions should be limited to the part that is essential to the paper. Histological photographs should always be accompanied by the magnification ratio and the staining method. If figures are in color, it should always be specified whether color or black and white reproduction is required in the print version. If figures are to be printed in black and white, an additional version of the captions should be provided for the print version not referring to color.
Supplementary Digital Material
Authors may submit supplementary material to support and enhance their article’s text to be published in the online edition only. Supplementary material should be submitted online during the submission process and may include the following types of content: text files, tables, figures, audios and videos. Authors are requested to submit as supplementary material tables that are too long to fit on a single printed page of the journal and any appendices.
One or more files of supplementary material may be attached to the article. Such files must be submitted separately and cited in consecutive order in the text. There are no restrictions on the content of a file (it may include a text and a table, a single table, a figure and a table, two figures, a video, etc.).
Each in-text citation of supplementary material should be clearly labeled as “Supplementary Digital Material” followed by the relevant number and the description of the material submitted (Supplementary Digital Material 1: Supplementary Text File, Supplementary Figure 1, Supplementary Table I and Supplementary Table II online content only). Audio and video citations should also include the length and size of the file (Supplementary Digital Material 2: Supplementary Video 1, online content only, 5 minutes, 10MB). Text files, figures and tables of supplementary materials should be accompanied by the relevant title.
Formats accepted for text files and tables: Word (.DOC and .DOCX) and RTF; formats accepted for figures: JPEG set at 300 dpi resolution preferred; other formats accepted are TIFF and PDF (high quality); formats accepted for audio files: MP3, WAV; formats accepted for video files: MP4, AVI, WMV. To ensure a quality experience, it is suggested that authors submit supplementary audios and videos no larger than 10 MB each.
If accepted, supplementary material will be published as submitted by the author without any correction and reformatting.

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