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The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2023 Feb 07

DOI: 10.23736/S1824-4785.23.03509-4


lingua: Inglese

Dual-tracer 99mTc-sestamibi/ 123I imaging in primary hyperparathyroidism

Ghoufrane TLILI 1, Charles MESGUICH 1, Delphine GAYE 2, Antoine TABARIN 3, Magalie HAISSAGUERRE 3, Elif HINDIÉ 1

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; 2 Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; 3 Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France


Surgery is the only curative treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Preoperative imaging is always recommended. 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy is often used in combination with neck ultrasonography as first-line imaging. 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy plays a major role in depicting ectopic parathyroid lesions, as well as in guiding a targeted, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP). Detecting multiple gland disease (MGD) is important to reduce the risks of surgical failure or unplanned conversion to bilateral surgery. However, the ability to recognize MGD varies greatly depending on the 99mTc-sestamibi imaging protocol that is used. Dual-tracer 99mTc-sestamibi/123I highly improves MGD detection compared to single-tracer “dual-phase” 99mTc-sestamibi imaging. It can thus improve patient selection for MIP. The main requirements for successful dual-tracer imaging are: 1) to acquire 99mTc-sestamibi and 123-iodine images simultaneously, thus avoiding motion artifacts on subtraction images; to use neck pinhole imaging, in addition to planar imaging, to improve resolution and MGD detection; to follow with dual-tracer SPECT/CT imaging to better define anatomic position of detected parathyroid lesions. If dual-tracer 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and neck ultrasonography are negative or inconclusive, the second-line imaging in our practice is 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT. The CT component of 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT is performed as non-enhanced acquisition plus a contrast-enhanced arterial phase acquisition, to minimize the risk from false-positives due to choline uptake in inflammatory lymph nodes. We use the same strategy of first-line dual-tracer 99mTc-sestamibi/123I plus neck ultrasonography, followed if necessary by second-line contrast-enhanced 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT, in patients requiring reoperation for persistent or recurrent PHPT. Additional localization techniques are now rarely necessary.

KEY WORDS: Hyperparathyroidism, primary; Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; Fluorocholine; Four-dimensional computed tomography; Neck; Ultrasonography

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