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The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2020 September;64(3):265-77

DOI: 10.23736/S1824-4785.20.03266-5


lingua: Inglese

Targeted alpha therapy: a critical review of translational dosimetry research with emphasis on actinium-225

Dayana CASTILLO SEOANE 1, 2, Marijke de SAINT-HUBERT 2, Melissa CRABBE 2, Lara STRUELENS 2, Michel KOOLE 1

1 Unit of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL), Leuven, Belgium; 2 Research Unit in Dosimetric Applications, Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK•CEN), Mol, Belgium

This review provides a general overview of the current achievements and challenges in translational dosimetry for targeted alpha therapy (TAT). The concept of targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) is described with an overview of its clinical applicability and the added value of TAT is discussed. For TAT, we focused on actinium-225 (225Ac) as an example for alpha particle emitting radionuclides and their features, such as limited range within tissue and high linear energy transfer, which make alpha particle emissions more effective in targeted killing of tumour cells compared to beta radiation. Starting with the state-of-the-art dosimetry for TRNT and TAT, we then describe the challenges that still need to be met in order to move to a personalized dosimetry approach for TAT. Specifically for 225Ac, we discuss the recoiled daughter effect which may provoke significant damage to healthy tissue or organs and should be considered. Next, a broad overview is given of the pre-clinical research on 225Ac-TAT with an extensive description of tools which are only available in a pre-clinical setting and their added value. In addition, we review the preclinical biodistribution and dosimetry studies that have been performed on TAT-agents and more specifically of 225Ac and its multiple progeny, and describe their potential role to better characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of TAT-agents and to optimize the use of theranostic approaches for dosimetry. Finally, we discuss the support pre-clinical studies may provide in understanding dose-effect relationships, linking radiation dose quantities to biological endpoints and even moving away from macro- to microdosimetry. As such, the translation of pre-clinical findings may provide valuable information and new approaches for improved clinical dosimetry, thus paving the way to personalized TAT.

KEY WORDS: Molecular targeted therapy; Radiometry; Actinium-225

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