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REVIEW  LATEST FRONTIERS OF HEMODYNAMICS, IMAGING AND TREATMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE VENOUS DISEASE 

Italian Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2018 June;25(2):132-42

DOI: 10.23736/S1824-4777.18.01336-0

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Renal vein compression syndromes: embryology, physiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment

Salvatore J. SCLAFANI

Unit of Radiology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Fresenius Vascular Care, Brooklyn, NY, USA


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The Nutcracker phenomenon has several anatomical variants. The most common is the anterior Nutcracker, resulting from compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. In this review the renal vein compression syndromes were analyzed, with a particular focus on the embryology, physiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment.


KEY WORDS: Renal veins - Renal nutcracker syndrome - Review

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