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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2022 Feb 21

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.22.13448-1

Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Different dehydration levels and their impact on blood ammonia, cognitive-motor performance, and muscle damage in acclimated runners

Natally M. OLIVEIRA 1, 2, 3, Luis F. SOUSA FILHO 4, Thássia C. FRANÇA 5, 2, Saulo R. CAMERINO 6, Rafaela C. LIMA 7, João A. NETO 8, 9, Edla A. HERCULANO 10, Gustavo G. ARAÚJO 11, 12, Eduardo S. PRADO 13, 2

1 Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 2 Laboratory for Research in Physical Exercise and Metabolism, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 3Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Sport, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 4 Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil; 5 Postgraduate Program of Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 6 Nutrition, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 7 Master’s in Health Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 8 Interactive Processes of Organs and Systems, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador in Bahia, Brazil; 9 Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 10 Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 11 Motor Science, Paulista State University, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 12 Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Sport, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil; 13 Genetics and Biochemistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil


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INTRODUCTION: Prolonged exercise in the heat can promote dehydration, which could impair ammonia metabolism, cognitive-motor performance, and muscle damage. However, exercise heat acclimation induces physiological adaptations that improve performance, metabolism, and cellular protection. This study aimed to evaluate different dehydration levels and their impact on blood ammonia, cognitive-motor performance, and muscle damage after a race in the heat in acclimated runners.
METHODS: Sixteen male amateur endurance runners performed a half marathon race. After the race, the runners were divided into two groups according to their percentage body mass change (Δ % BM): Δ % BM less than 3 % (G1 %; n = 8) and Δ % BM greater than or equal to 3 % (G3 %; n = 8). Hydration status, biochemical parameters, and cognitive-motor performance were assessed before and after the race.
RESULTS: Blood ammonia concentrations were increased in both G1% (before: 46 ± 26 μmol/L; after: 118 ± 22 μmol/L) and G3 % (before: 41 ± 15 μmol/L; after: 108 ± 15 μmol/L) groups. There was an early increase in all markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase - CK, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH, aspartate aminotransferase - AST, and alanine aminotransferase - ALT) in both groups, but only LDH was greater in the G3% group than in the G1% group. Cognitive-motor performance did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration up to ~ 4 % BM loss does not affect blood ammonia concentrations and cognitive-motor performance in acclimated runners. The results also suggest that exercising in the heat induces the early appearance of several markers of muscle damage in acclimated runners regardless of hydration status.


KEY WORDS: Heat stress; Heat acclimatization; Exercise performance; Metabolism; Muscle damage

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