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THE JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS

Rivista di Medicina, Traumatologia e Psicologia dello Sport


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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 May 05

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07230-9

Copyright © 2017 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Long-term high intensity sport practice modulates adaptative changes in athletes heart and in the autonomic nervous system profile

Witold SLOMKO 1, Joanna SLOMKO 2, Tomasz KOWALIK 3, Jacek J. KLAWE 2, Malgorzata TAFIL-KLAWE 4, Agnieszka CUDNOCH-JEDRZEJEWSKA 5, Julia L. NEWTON 6, Pawel ZALEWSKI 2

1 Department of Physiotherapy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland; 2 Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland; 3 Department of Fundamentals of Physical Culture, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland; 4 Department of Human Physiology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland; 5 Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 6 Institute for Cellular Medicine, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK


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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic adaptation changes in athletes exposed to high intensity and uninterrupted training for extended periods of time.
METHODS: We assessed hemodynamic profile and cardiac function in 22 international master-level athletes, free of cardiovascular disease who experienced particularly intensive and uninterrupted training over a 8- to 21-year-period.
RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed that in athletes, extreme and uninterrupted strength and endurance training over long periods of time (up to 21 years) causes an increase in resting heart rate (50.3±7.1 vs 63.0±10.7, p=0.0429) , diastolic (65.8±5.2 vs 75.2±5.7, p=0.0222) and mean blood pressure (85.4±6.0 vs 95.6±6.4, p=0.0166). On multiple regression, increasing training experience was related to decrease in RRI (R2=0.18, p=0.0481) and increase in dBP (R2=0.32, p=0.0064) and mBP (R2=0.31, p=0.0075) although the effect was small. A negative correlation was observed between the training age and the parameters describing parasympathetic function: HF-RRI (R=-0.54, p=0.0321), HF-dBP (R=-0.52, p=0.0401) and PSD-RRI (R=-0.51, p=0.0414).
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term sport practice at a world class level causes an increase in resting heart rate, diastolic and mean blood pressure, and decrease of the parasympathetic dominance and this may result from decreasing adjustment to large training loads.


KEY WORDS: Sport physiology - Training - Physical activity

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Slomko W, Slomko J, Kowalik T, Klawe JJ, Tafil-Klawe M, Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska A, et al. Long-term high intensity sport practice modulates adaptative changes in athletes heart and in the autonomic nervous system profile. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017 May 05. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.07230-9 

Corresponding author e-mail

witek.slomko@cm.umk.pl