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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2022 August;62(8):1103-9

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12918-4

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Hematological variables in recreational breath-hold divers: a longitudinal study

Tiffany ASTOLFI 1, 2, Fabienne CRETTAZ VON ROTEN 2, Bengt KAYSER 2, Martial SAUGY 1, 2, Raphael FAISS 1, 2

1 Research and Expertise in Anti-Doping Sciences (REDs), University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 2 ISSUL, Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland



BACKGROUND: The influence of regular breath-hold training on hematological variables is not fully understood. We monitored hematological variables in breath-hold divers (BHDs) and active controls over a year expecting both breath-hold training and seasonal effects.
METHODS: In 11 recreational BHDs (36±9 years, 177±8 cm, 72±9 kg) and 12 active controls (22±2 years, 174±8 cm, 70±13 kg) monthly blood samples were analyzed with the hematological module of WADA’s athlete biological passport. Hemoglobin mass and plasma volume were measured indirectly by the CO-rebreathing method for the last eight months of the study. Breath-hold training sessions were recorded online. Days without breath-hold training, or the number of hours prior to blood sampling when training was realized within the last 24 hours, were recorded.
RESULTS: Hematology did not differ significantly between BHDs and controls over the study time (P>0.05). However, hematological values varied significantly over time for both groups suggesting seasonal effects. Blood sampling 19 hours or more after a breath hold training did not indicate any acute effects of breath holding training.
CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with a physically active lifestyle, regular breath-hold training does not induce significant variations over one year for the hematological module of the ABP.


KEY WORDS: Hematology; Doping in sports; Apnea

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