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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2020 December;60(12):1526-35

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.20.11136-8

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Post high intensity pull-over semi-tethered swimming potentiation in national competitive swimmers

Francisco CUENCA-FERNÁNDEZ 1 , Nuno M. BATALHA 2, 3, Jesús J. RUIZ-NAVARRO 1, Esther MORALES-ORTIZ 1, Gracia LÓPEZ-CONTRERAS 1, Raúl ARELLANO 1

1 Aquatics Lab, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2 Department of Sports and Health, University of Evora, Evora, Portugal; 3 CHRC-UE - Comprehensive Health Research Care, University of Evora, Evora, Portugal



BACKGROUND: The swimming community has shown considerable interest in using dry-land warm-ups as a method of impacting performance. This study compared the effects of high-resistance pull-over and swimming warm-up in semi-tethered resisted swimming.
METHODS: An incremental-load semi-tethered swimming test was individually administered in 20 national-competitive swimmers to determine the load maximizing swimming power. In different sessions, participants tested such a load 6 min after a swimming warm-up (SWU) or a dry-land warm-up (DLWU: 3 pull-over reps at 85% of the one-repetition maximum). Kinetic variables (velocity, force, acceleration, impulse, power rate of force development [RFD] and intra-cycle variation), were obtained with a linear encoder through trapezoidal integration regarding time. Kinematic variables (distance, time, stroke-rate and stroke-length), were obtained by video recordings. The differences between protocols were observed by paired-samples t-test (ANOVA). Pearson’s coefficient explored correlations between kinetics and kinematics variables; significance was set at P<0.05.
RESULTS: DLWU increased RFD (34.52±16.55 vs. 31.29±13.70 N/s; Δ=9.35%) and stroke-rate (64.70±9.84 vs. 61.56±7.07 Hz; Δ=5.10%) compared to SWU, but decreased velocity, force, acceleration, impulse and power. During the incremental-load test velocity and power were higher than obtained after SWU (1.21±0.14 vs. 1.17±0.12 m/s; Δ=3.06%), (51.38±14.93 vs. 49.98±15.40 W; Δ=2.72%), suggesting enhancements prompted by the test itself. Correlations between stroke-length with impulse (r=0.76) and power (r=0.75) associated kinetics with kinematics.
CONCLUSIONS: Potentiation responses were present after the dry-land warm-up. However, swimmers may benefit more from submaximal prolonged conditioning activities such as resisted swimming rather than high-resistance dry-land sets to obtain performance enhancements.


KEY WORDS: Sports; Exercise; Muscle fatigue; Physical exertion

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