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The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 November;57(11):1499-503

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06836-5


lingua: Inglese

Evaluation of hydration status by urine, body mass variation and plasma parameters during an official half-marathon

Emerson R. PEREIRA 1, 2, Marcelo T. de ANDRADE 1, Thiago T. MENDES 1, 3, Guilherme P. RAMOS 1, 4, André MAIA-LIMA 1, Eliney S. MELO 1, Moisés V. CARVALHO 5, Carolina F. WILKE 1, Luciano S. PRADO 1, Emerson SILAMI-GARCIA 1, 3

1 Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2 University Center of Sete Lagoas, Sete Lagoas, Brazil; 3 Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Brazil; 4 Exercise Physiology, Brazilian Football Confederation, Teresópolis, Brazil; 5 State University of Minas Gerais, Ibirité, Brazil


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to verify the agreement of urine, body mass variations and plasma parameters to determine the hydration status of 14 male runners (29±4 years and 54.3±5.5 mLO2/kg/min) in an official 21.1 km road race.
METHODS: The mean dry-bulb temperature and air relative humidity during the road race were 25.1±2.1 °C and 54.7±2.2%, respectively. The volume of water ingested by the runners was monitored using marked volumetric plastic bottles provided at the hydration stations located at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.5, 14.0, 16.0 and 18.5 km from the starting line. Hydration status was assessed using urine specific gravity (USG), urine osmolality (UOSM) and plasma osmolality (POSM). Furthermore, body mass variation (∆BM) was assessed by comparing body mass (BM) immediately prior and after the race. Total sweat was estimated by ∆BM, added water volume ingested and deducted blood volume collected. The sweat rate was calculated through total sweat and total exercise time.
RESULTS: The mean water intake was 0.82±0.40 L, and the mean sweat rate and total sweating were 1440.11±182.13 mL/h and 2.67±0.23 L. After the race, the BM reduced by 1.7±0.4 kg. The ∆BM was -2.41±0.47%, and the plasma volume variation was -9.79±4.6% between pre- and post-running measurements. Despite the POSM increased post-race compared to pre-race, the UOSM and USG did not change. No significant correlations were found between POSM variation with UOSM variation (r=-0.08; P=0.71), USG variation (r=-0.11; P=0.78) or ∆BM (r=0.09; P=0.77).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study shows that both ∆BM and ∆POSM indicated a hypohydration state after exercise even though the ∆BM did not correlate significantly with ∆POSM. These results demonstrate that ∆BM is a practical method and can be sufficiently sensitive to evaluate the hydration state, but it should be utilized with caution.

KEY WORDS: Dehydration - Drinking - Hematologic tests - Urinalysis - Body Mass Index - Running

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