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ORIGINAL ARTICLE  PSYCHOLOGY 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2017 June;57(6):916-22

DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06278-2

Copyright © 2016 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

The effects of health counseling and exercise training on self-rated health and well-being in middle-aged men: a randomized trial

Elina ENGBERG 1, 2, Helena LIIRA 3, 4, Katriina KUKKONEN-HARJULA 5, Svetlana FROM 3, Hannu KAUTIAINEN 3, 6, Kaisu PITKÄLÄ 3, Heikki O. TIKKANEN 1, 2, 7

1 Department of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Clinicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 2 Foundation for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Clinic for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Helsinki, Finland; 3 Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 4 School of Primary, Aboriginal and Rural Health Care, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia; 5 UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland; 6 Unit of Primary Health Care, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; 7 Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland


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BACKGROUND: Few community-based lifestyle interventions have examined subjective well-being. We examined the effects of health counseling and exercise training on self-rated health (SRH), self-rated well-being (SRW) and depressive symptoms in middle-aged men at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a randomized controlled trial.
METHODS: Men (N.=168) with at least two CVD risk factors engaging in leisure-time physical activity less than three times/week were randomized into: A) a group receiving single-session health counseling; B) a group receiving single-session health counseling and three months of weekly structured group exercise training; or C) a control group. We assessed SRH and SRW using visual analogue scales and depressive symptoms using a brief depression screener (the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, PHQ-2).
RESULTS: Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models showed that, after 3 and 12 months, SRH (P=0.024) and SRW (P=0.014) improved across all groups. We found no differences between the groups (group by time effect, P=0.44 and P=0.80). The proportion of men with PHQ-2 scores ≥3 (positive depression screen) decreased in groups A (from 27% to 13%) and B (from 34% to 18%), but increased among controls (from 26% to 31%) (group by time effect, P=0.078).
CONCLUSIONS: We found improvements in SRH and SRW, with a diminishing proportion of men screening positive for depression one year after a single health counseling session and a three-month exercise-training program. We detected, however, no statistically significant differences when comparing men who received health counseling or health counseling combined with exercise training to controls.


KEY WORDS: Randomized controlled trial - Health status - Men - Exercise

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