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Original articles  SPORT PSYCHOLOGY 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2007 June;47(2):228-33


lingua: Inglese

The relationship between sources of motivation and level of practice in young portuguese swimmers

Salselas V. 1, Gonzalez-Boto R. 2, Tuero C. 2, Marquez S. 2

1 School of Physical Education ISLA-Bragança, Portugal 2 School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences University of León, León, Spain


Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between participation motives and level of practice in young Portuguese swimmers and to investigate whether swimmers with a different expertise differ in their reasons for participation involvement.
Methods. A total of 155 subjects (68 male and 87 female), aged 7 to 18 years, responded to the Portuguese versions of the Participation Motivation Inventory. The subjects were divided into those participating in learn-to swim programs (n=40), advanced programs (n=49) or competition (n=56).
Results. A significant multivariate effect was obtained for level of practice, with children involved in learn-to swim programs rating fitness, competition, general affiliation, technical skills and fun significantly lower in importance than the other two groups. A 2 (subject gender) ×3 (practice level) MANCOVA, with age at dropout, revealed that the effect of the covariate itself was not significant, but a main effect was found for gender, differing boys and girls only in the emotion factor. A significant interaction was also detected between gender and participation level, with a higher importance given to general affiliation by girls in comparison to boys in the advanced programs and competition categories.
Conclusion. Our results in a sample of Portuguese swimmers indicate the existence of multiple motives for participation and significant differences in motivational factors in relation to the practice level.

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