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Original articles  BIOCHEMISTRY 

The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 2002 June;42(2):243-9


lingua: Inglese

Hormone plasma levels from pituitary-gonadal axis in performance athletes after the 400 m run

Slowińska-Lisowska M., Majda J.

From the Department of Sports Medicine Academy of Physical Education, Wroclław, Poland *Medical Diagnostic Department IV Military Clinical Hospital, Wrocław, Poland


Background. The aim of ­this ­study was to com­pare the con­cen­tra­tion chang­es in hor­mones ­from pitui­tary – gon­a­dal ­axis, ­induced by the 400 m run in the ­well-­trained ath­letes (­vice-cham­pions in the Hall and Summer Athletic World Championship in 1999) to the chang­es ­observed in the com­pet­i­tors ­with short­er train­ing peri­od and achiev­ing ­worse ­final ­results.
Methods. This ­research was con­duct­ed on 6 ­males – mem­bers of the Polish Olympic Team, who won ­vice-cham­pion­ship in the Hall and Summer World Championships 1999 and 6 ath­letes ­trained in the aca­dem­ic ­sport ­clubs. In the ­recent inves­ti­ga­tion, the 400 m run was ­assumed to be a stim­u­lat­ing ­impulse for evok­ing hor­mo­nal chang­es. The ­blood sam­ples ­were tak­en ­from the ­elbow ­vein ­before the run, imme­di­ate­ly ­after the ­effort and ­after the 24-­hour ­rest. In the ser­um, the lutein­iz­ing hor­mone (LH), fol­li­cle-stim­u­lat­ing hor­mone (FSH), ­total tes­tos­te­rone (TT), ­free tes­tos­te­rone (FT) as ­well as the sex hor­mones-bind­ing glob­u­lin (­SHBG) con­cen­tra­tions ­were deter­mined.
Results. During our ­research, imme­di­ate­ly ­after the 400 m run in ­group I — the top ­class sports­men — the sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant ­increase in ­both gon­a­dot­ro­phins (LH, FSH) was deter­mined as ­well as the ­decrease in the ­total and ­free tes­tos­te­rone. In the ­group II — the ath­letes ­with the low­er train­ing lev­el — the ­increase in FSH and the ­total and ­free tes­tos­te­rone con­cen­tra­tions was ­noticed. There ­were no sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­enc­es in the ­SHBG con­cen­tra­tion. After-­effort ­increase in the lac­tic ­acid con­cen­tra­tion was ­observed in ­both ­groups. In the mas­ter ­group I, the ­increase in lac­tic ­acid con­cen­tra­tion was high­er ­than in ­group II. In ­both ­groups ­after the 24-­hour res­ti­tu­tion, the exam­ined param­e­ters, ­except LH lev­els in the ­group I, ­showed the con­cen­tra­tions sim­i­lar to ­those ­before the ­effort. Analysis of the ­time need­ed to cov­er the dis­tance of the ­race ­showed ­that the ath­letes ­from ­group I cov­ered the dis­tance of 400 m in the short­er ­time.
Conclusions. The ­group of mas­ter ­class ath­letes, ­whose aver­age inten­sive train­ing peri­od was 8 ­years, had high­er V.O2max and high­er ­after-­effort ­increase in the lac­tic ­acid con­cen­tra­tion ­than in the ­group of sports­men ­with the short­er train­ing peri­od (4 ­years), who had low­er V.O2max, ­worse ­sport ­results and low­er ­after-­effort ­increase in the lac­tic ­acid con­cen­tra­tion, ­gave dif­fer­ent hor­mo­nal ­response (par­tic­u­lar­ly TT, FT con­cen­tra­tion) for the ­same exer­cise ­impulse. The dif­fer­ence ­based on the ­fact, ­that ­after the run in ­group I the ­decrease in the ­total and ­free tes­tos­te­rone lev­els and in ­group II the ­increase in the ­same param­e­ters ­were ­observed. The ­observed hor­mo­nal chang­es in the mas­ter ­class ath­letes ­induced by the ­years-­long anaer­o­bic train­ing ­might pro­vide evi­dence for the reduc­tion of func­tion­al ­reserves in gon­ads ­when com­pared to the ­group of ­less ­trained sports­men.

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