Home > Riviste > Panminerva Medica > Fascicoli precedenti > Articles online first > Panminerva Medica 2022 Feb 11

ULTIMO FASCICOLO
 

JOURNAL TOOLS

Opzioni di pubblicazione
eTOC
Per abbonarsi
Sottometti un articolo
Segnala alla tua biblioteca
 

ARTICLE TOOLS

Publication history
Estratti
Permessi
Per citare questo articolo
Share

 

 

Panminerva Medica 2022 Feb 11

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.22.04677-8

Copyright © 2022 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on male sexual and reproductive function: a systematic review

Massimiliano ESPOSITO 1, Monica SALERNO 1, Gianluca CALVANO 2, Roberta AGLIOZZO 2, Vincenzo FICARRA 3, Francesco SESSA 4, Vincenzo FAVILLA 3, Sebastiano CIMINO 2, Cristoforo POMARA 1

1 Legal Medicine, Department of Medical, Surgical and Advanced Technologies, G.F. Ingrassia, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 2 Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 3 Section of Urology, Department of Human and Pediatric Pathology Gaetano Barresi, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy;


PDF


INTRODUCTION: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are a complex cluster of synthetic derivatives of testosterone. AAS abuse is considered a major public health issue since it has increased among young/adolescent males. The use of steroids has a prevalence rate of 14% in young athletes and 30-75% in professional athletes or bodybuilders. AASs simulate the testosterone mechanism, binding the intracellular androgen receptor, and dysregulating the normal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the same way as exogenous testosterone. Abuse can produce several side effects on organs, such as the genital system. The physio-pathological mechanisms that cause AAS abuse-related, genital system disorders in humans are still not completely known.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This review focuses on the effect of AASs on the male reproductive organs in humans and animals.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: a systematic review was performed using SCOPUS, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Sciences database up to 31 December 2021 using the keywords: "anabolic-androgenic steroids", "erectile dysfunction", "spermatogenesis" and "infertility"; (anabolic agents) "erectile dysfunction", "spermatogenesis" and "infertility". The review of the literature identified 66 articles published until 2021. 62 articles were included. The use of AASs induces testicular atrophy and azoospermia known as "anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism". Anabolic steroid induced infertility is characterized by oligo or azoospermia and abnormalities in sperm motility and morphology. Although sperm quality recovers in most cases within 4 months of stopping anabolic steroid abuse, the negative consequences on spermatogenesis can take up to 3 years to disappear. Human studies reported a positive correlation between AAS abuse in athletes and an increase in morphologically abnormal spermatozoa. Animal studies showed the destruction of Leydig cells and testicular atrophy in animals treated with cycles of AASs.
CONCLUSIONS: The present review of the literature highlights how little is known about the action of AASs on the male genital system. However, although their use is prohibited in many countries, the black market for these substances is still very frequent. The scientific landscape still has a lot to invest in the research of AAS on the male genital system so as to make young people even more aware of the negative aspects of these substances, contributing to the reduction of these products in an inappropriate way.


KEY WORDS: AAS; Erectile dysfunction; Spermatogenesis; Infertility; Male sexual and reproductive function

inizio pagina