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Panminerva Medica 2021 Mar 09

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04308-1


lingua: Inglese

Cardiac rehabilitation in patients with diabetes

Nelson A. CAMPOS 1 , Galo A. PALACIOS 2

1 Department of Medical Sciences, Technical University of Manabí, Manabí, Ecuador; 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Verdy Cevallos Balda Hospital, Manabi, Ecuador


INTRODUCTION: Cardiac rehabilitation is very important since diabetes is the set of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, with alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins as a consequence of defects in the secretion and action of insulin. When diabetes is related to cardiovascular complications, they are the main cause of death due to risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity and hyperglycemia, thus causing atherosclerotic changes in the vascular bed, increasing the risk of a fulminant event. The prevention of heart disease in diabetics includes preventive methods of heart disease along with that of diabetes, such as glycemic control, proper nutrition, continuing therapeutic education, physical activity, and anti-lipid medications, along with pharmacological measures including vasodilators, beta-blockers and antiplatelet agents, etc.
ACQUISITION OF EVIDENCE: We conducted a review of the literature to identify studies on diabetes, cardiovascular prevention, and cardiac complications in diabetic patients. We carry out multiple investigations in published bibliographic databases.
SYNTHESIS OF THE EVIDENCE: A total of twenty nine (29) studies have been reviewed for this review in which 100% evidenced the favorable contribution of cardiac rehabilitation in diabetic patients. Six (6) studies evaluated the different current contents in diabetes equivalent to 20.6%, fifteen (15) (studies evaluated the cardiovascular risks in diabetic patients equivalent to 51.7% and eight (8) evaluated the cardiovascular complications that occur in diabetic patients equivalent to 27.7%.
CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic management of heart disease in diabetic patients is aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk, through pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. However, the weakest point of the treatment is the lack of adherence to the treatments. Physical Exercise is an essential element, together with hypoglycemic and nutritional treatment in Diabetes Mellitus (DM), due to its usefulness in the control of diabetes and prevention of cardiovascular complications.

KEY WORDS: Diabetes; Heart disease; Cardiac rehabilitation

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