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Panminerva Medica 2019 March;61(1):58-67

DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03490-0


lingua: Inglese

Impact of Body Mass Index on female fertility and ART outcomes

Majdi IMTERAT 1, Ashok AGARWAL 2, Sandro C. ESTEVES 3, Jenna MEYER 4, Avi HARLEV 1, 2

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 2 American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3 Andrology and Human Reproduction Clinic, ANDROFERT, Referral Center for Male Reproduction, Campinas, Brazil; 4 Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel

As the global mean Body Mass Index (BMI) is on the rise, the importance of understanding exactly how female fertility is impacted by once outlier BMI values, becomes ever more important. Studies have implicated abnormal BMI on the female reproductive system by contributing to anovulation, irregular menses, adverse oocyte quality, endometrial alterations, and hormonal imbalances. These well ultimately result in female infertility, which could complicate natural conception efforts and request considering assisted reproductive technology (ART) in such couples. With an increase in the demand for ART, it is crucial to understand what factors can be altered by the female BMI in order to maximize the opportunity for successful pregnancy. The current manuscript aimed to review the information about the effect of BMI on the female fertility and ART outcomes. The complex nature of the female reproductive system leaves space for multiple factors to adversely affect its processes. Imbalances in the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis can impede efforts for couples to conceive. Leptin and estrogen are two hormones that have been implicated in regulating BMI as well as reproductive physiology. Lifestyle modifications prior to, and during ART have shown promise in enhancing fecundity. The intricacies in female reproductive system leaves much to the unknown, and often with conflicting results. Further research is required to fully elucidate what aspects of female fertility are influenced by BMI, and how the healthcare provider can facilitate successful outcomes. The current review will enable a better consultation and treatment.

KEY WORDS: Fertility - Infertility - Body Mass Index - Estrogens - Insulin - Life style

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