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REVIEWS  Insights in metabolic syndrome 

Panminerva Medica 2006 September;48(3):151-64


lingua: Inglese

Metabolic syndrome and renal failure: similarities and differences

Kaysen G. A. 1, 2

1 Division of Nephrology Department of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine University of California, Davis, CA, USA 2 Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Mather, CA, USA


The metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) share many similar risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with increased triglyceride (TG) levels, both associated with increased small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL), both with decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. In both cases HDL particle size is reduced. The TG content of HDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and remnants are increased, resulting in a dyslipidemia. Both are associated with increased inflammation, a hypercoagulable state and insulin resistance. Establishing whether these similarities are the result of identical biological processes or instead represent similar end results of different processes is further confounded by the associated both of adiposity and of MS with the incidence and progression of renal failure. Differences are present however. In MS hepatic VLDL synthesis is increased driven by increased flux of free fatty acids from muscle, adipose tissue and gut to the liver. VLDL is catabolized to LDL and the transfer of TG to HDL by cholesterol ester transfer protein destabilizes HDL leading to its rapid clearance. In CKD HDL fails to mature due to reduced activity of lecithin cholesterol transfer protein. In MS inflammation primarily arises from increased visceral adipose tissue, while inflammation is largely unrelated to body composition in CKD. Increased production of TG rich lipoproteins predominates in MS, while decreased disposal of TG rich proteins predominates as the cause of increased TG levels in CKD. Whether treatment of elements of MS, with the exception of hypertension, will avoid the onset and progression of renal failure is unknown.

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