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Review Article   

Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences 2022 Mar 17

DOI: 10.23736/S0390-5616.21.05507-7

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Endoscopic endonasal treatment of craniopharyngiomas: current management strategies and future perspectives

Domenico SOLARI , Ciro MASTANTUONI, Luigi M. CAVALLO, Felice ESPOSITO, Paolo CAPPABIANCA

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy


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INTRODUCTION: Craniopharyngiomas are locally aggressive disembryogenetic tumors presenting mostly in childhood and late adulthood. They are often burdened by an unfavorable clinical course due to close relationships with nearby critical neurovascular structures and high risk of recurrences. The aim of our paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature regarding current strategies and future perspectives for the treatment of craniopharyngiomas, focusing on the role of endoscopic endonasal surgery.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive literature search of three databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Ovid Embase) has been conducted to identify papers addressing the management strategies in adult and pediatric craniopharyngioma patients.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: 22 articles have been included, providing data for 560 adult and 215 pediatric patients. Mean follow up was 40,29 months for the adult and 58,05 months for pediatric population. GTR rate was 60,97% and 82,52% in adult and pediatric patients, respectively. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered in 20,99% of adult and 8,25% of pediatric cases. 89% of adult patients and 94,11% of pediatric patients receiving radiotherapy had previously undergone NTR, STR or partial resection. The recurrence rate was 19,32% and 18,61% for adult and pediatric population, respectively. Recurrences occurred mostly in patients receiving incomplete resection without adjuvant radiotherapy (72,87% in adults and 51,28% in children). 86,69% and 87,12% of adult and pediatric patients reported improvement of their previous ophthalmologic deficit. 40% of the adult population and 41,86%% of pediatric patients worsened or developed endocrinological disturbances. CSF leak rate was 16,4% in adults and 13,95%% in children.
CONCLUSIONS: Modern policy of craniopharyngioma management is represented by the combination of a “maximum safe” allowed surgical removal plus radiotherapy. In this scenario, the endoscopic endonasal technique proved to be a valid approach for removing these lesions, providing satisfactory outcomes with lower morbidity.


KEY WORDS: Craniopharyngioma; Endoscopic endonasal surgery; Skull base; Radiation therapy; Hypophysis/hypothalamus

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