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Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences 2020 Nov 27

DOI: 10.23736/S0390-5616.20.05079-1


lingua: Inglese

Flow-augmentation bypass for Moyamoya disease

Miki FUJIMURA 1, 2 , Teiji TOMINAGA 3

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Kohnan Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 2 Division of Advanced Cerebrovascular Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 3 Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan


Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, which is characterized by progressive steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. MMD has an intrinsic temporal nature to attempt a gradual conversion of the vascular supply for the brain from intracranial/internal carotid (IC) system to extracranial/external carotid (EC) system, so called ‘IC-EC conversion’. Compatible cerebrovascular angio-architecture could be found in association with a variety of conditions such as neuro-fibromatosis type-1, Down’s syndrome and cranial irradiation, which is called as moyamoya syndrome, akin/quasi MMD, or secondary MMD. Diagnosis of moyamoya vasculopathy, either idiopathic or secondary, is clinically important because flow-augmentation bypass is markedly beneficial for this entity to prevent cerebral ischemic attack by improving cerebral blood flow. Moreover, recent evidence indicated that flow-augmentation bypass could prevent re-bleeding in hemorrhagic MMD patients. Based on these backgrounds, there is a worldwide increase in the number of MMD patients undergoing bypass surgery. We sought to demonstrate our standard surgical procedure of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass with indirect pial synangiosis for MMD and its technical pitfall. We also discuss the intrinsic peri-operative hemodynamics of MMD after bypass surgery, including local cerebral hyperperfusion and characteristic hemodynamic ischemia caused by watershed shift phenomenon. The aim of this review article is to understand the basic pathology of MMD, which is essential for complication avoidance while conducting flow-augmentation bypass for MMD.

KEY WORDS: Moyamoya vasculopathy; Moyamoya disease; EC-IC bypass; Revascularization surgery; Surgical complication

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