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Minerva Urology and Nephrology 2022 October;74(5):599-606

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04322-6


lingua: Inglese

Assessment of predictors of renal cell carcinoma progression after nephrectomy at short- and medium-term follow-up and implication on surveillance protocols

Davide PERRI, Carlotta PALUMBO, Michele BILLIA, Paolo UMARI, Monica ZACCHERO, Daniele D’AGATE, Gianmarco BONDONNO, Alessandro VOLPE

Division of Urology, Department of Translational Medicine, Maggiore della Carità Hospital, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy

BACKGROUND: Prediction of risk of RCC progression after surgery is important for follow-up planning. We identified predictors of progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in a large single institutional cohort and investigated patterns and sites of progression according to stage and grade.
METHODS: Node-negative non-metastatic clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) patients treated with radical or partial nephrectomy from 2000 to 2020 were included. Sites of progression were defined as thoracic, abdominal and others (bone/brain). Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox regression (MCR) models tested for PFS and CSS.
RESULTS: Of 384 clear cell RCC N0M0 patients, 301 (78.4%) vs. 83 (21.6%) were pT1-2 vs. pT3-4, respectively; 253 (65.9%) vs. 130 (33.9%) were G1-G2 vs. G3-G4. Thoracic progressions occurred in 2.7% pT1-T2 vs. 21.7% pT3-T4 and 2.8% G1-G2 vs. 14.6% G3-G4 tumors. Abdominal progressions occurred in 4.0% pT1-T2 vs. 13.3% pT3-T4 and 4.3% G1-G2 vs. 9.2% G3-G4. Other progressions occurred in 0.3% pT1-T2 vs. 9.6% pT3-T4 and 0.8% G1-G2 vs. 5.4% G3-G4 (5.4%). Five-year PFS and CSS were 81.7 and 90.6%, respectively. At MCR models, pT3-4 (HR 9.1, P<0.001), G3-G4 (HR 2.7, P=0.003) and PSMs (HR 6.1, P<0.001) independently predicted PFS. Similarly, pT3-4 (HR 10.1, P<0.001), G3-G4 (HR 4.1, P=0.02), and PSMs (HR 5.2, P=0.04) independently predicted CSS.
CONCLUSIONS: In ccRCC N0M0 patients, G3-G4, pT3-4, PSMs were independent predictors of progression after surgery. Lower stage and grade ccRCCs progress predominantly in the abdominal sites and may be followed with less frequent extra-abdominal imaging compared to more advanced/aggressive tumors.

KEY WORDS: Renal cell carcinoma; Nephrectomy; Progression-free survival

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