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Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica 2020 December;72(6):712-22

DOI: 10.23736/S0393-2249.20.03762-5


lingua: Inglese

The urothelium, the urinary microbioma and men LUTS: a systematic review

Riccardo LOMBARDO 1 , Giorgia TEMA 1, Jean N. CORNU 2, Ferdinando FUSCO 3, Kevin McVARY 4, Andrea TUBARO 1, Cosimo DE NUNZIO 1

1 Department of Urology, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 2 Charles Nicolle University Hospital, Rouen Cedex, France; 3 Department of Neurosciences, Human Reproduction and Odontostomatology, University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 4 Department of Urology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA

INTRODUCTION: The pathophysiology and management of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is still a matter of debate. In the past few years, the urothelium and the urinary microbiota represented important areas of research to improve the understanding and management of these patients. Aim of the present review was to summarize the available data on the urothelium and the microbiota related to male LUTS.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed search for relevant articles published between January 2000 and December 2019 was performed using the medical subjects heading “urothelium,” “microbioma,” “microbiota,” “urobioma,” “urobiota,” “benign prostatic hyperplasia,” “benign prostatic enlargement,” “lower urinary tract symptoms,” ”lower urinary tract dysfunction,” “men,” “male,” “overactive bladder,” ”receptors.” Exclusion criteria included: animal studies and studies on muscarinic and adrenergic pathways.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The urothelium has been recently evaluated in humans to evaluate new possible markers and pathways. New possible targets for the treatment of male LUTS include the neural growth factor, the cannabinoid, the vanilloid and the ATP pathways. However, studies in humans are still needed to elucidate the exact role of these pathways in the management of male patients with LUTS. The available evidence on the urinary microbioma in male is poor. Standing to the available, urinary microbioma is evident in healthy urine in males. Moreover, the urinary microbioma varies depending on the method of collection, sexually transmitted disease status, inflammation and urinary symptoms. A possible role of probiotics in the management of LUTS in women has been proposed and may have a role in male patients as well.
CONCLUSIONS: The urothelium and the urinary microbiota are still poorly studied in men with LUTS. Most of the evidence and the hypothesis on the relationship between urothelium/urinary microbiota and LUTS comes from animal/in-vitro evidence while clinical trials are lacking. These pathways seem interesting even in LUTS pathogenesis in men but their possible role as a new therapeutic target is still an open debate.

KEY WORDS: Urothelium; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Urology

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