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Minerva Pediatrics 2022 August;74(4):432-46

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5276.19.05466-5


lingua: Inglese

The influence of air pollution on respiratory allergies, asthma and wheeze in childhood in Hungary

Krisztina VÖRÖS 1 , Tamás KÓI 2, Donát MAGYAR 3, Péter RUDNAI 4, Anna PÁLDY 3

1 Doctoral School of Pathological Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2 Institute of Mathematics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary; 3 Department of Air Hygiene and Aerobiology, National Institute of Public Health, Budapest, Hungary; 4 Department of Environmental Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health, Budapest, Hungary

BACKGROUND: Higher exposure to air pollution may contribute to the increased prevalence of allergic diseases in children. The study investigated the associations between the prevalence of childhood respiratory diseases and long-term exposure to NO2, SO2, PM10, especially some surrogates in schoolchildren in Hungary. We also analyzed the possible modification effects of some confounders by interaction analysis.
METHODS: A total of 6771 children aged 8-9-year-old residing at their current addresses since their births with air pollution monitoring stations were selected into this analysis. Health outcomes and their possible determinants, as well as surrogates of air pollution were surveyed by using a standardized questionnaire. Long-term exposure to PM10, NO2, and SO2 was calculated at settlement level derived from daily average concentrations of pollutants. Descriptive and analytical statistical methods were applied.
RESULTS: NO2 levels were positively associated with respiratory allergies and asthma. Decreased risk for ragweed, any other pollen, house dust mite and animal fur allergy was detected with PM10 level. There were significant associations between respiratory allergies to ragweed, any other pollen, house dust mite, animal fur, wheeze symptoms and living or attending school nearby a factory, power station or bus station as well as living in a home with intensive noise or vibration. Gender, parental atopy, home mold and early respiratory infection were significant effect modifiers in some cases.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that respiratory health in children is adversely affected by air pollutants.

KEY WORDS: Air pollution; Allergy and immunology; Prevalence; Child; Asthma

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