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REVIEW  IMMUNONUTRITION IN PEDIATRICS 

Minerva Pediatrics 2021 April;73(2):115-27

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06188-0

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

The role of probiotics and postbiotics in modulating the gut microbiome-immune system axis in the pediatric age

Laura CARUCCI 1, 2, Serena COPPOLA 1, 2, Anna LUZZETTI 1, 2, Veronica GIGLIO 1, 2, Jon VANDERHOOF 3, Roberto BERNI CANANI 1, 2, 4, 5

1 Department of Translational Medical Science, Federico II University, Naples, Italy; 2 ImmunoNutritionLab at CEINGE Advanced Biotechnologies, Federico II University, Naples, Italy; 3 Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4 European Laboratory for the Investigation of Food-Induced Diseases, Federico II University, Naples, Italy; 5 Task Force for Microbiome Studies, Federico II University, Naples, Italy



The complex microbial community of the gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in driving development and function of the human immune system. This phenomenon is named the gut microbiome-immune system axis. When operating optimally, this axis influences both innate and adaptive immunity, which orchestrates the maintenance of crucial elements of host-microorganisms symbiosis, in a dialogue that modulates responses in the most beneficial way. Growing evidence reveals some environmental factors which can positively and negatively modulate the gut microbiome-immune system axis with consequences on the body health status. Several conditions which increasingly affect the pediatric age, such as allergies, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, arise from a failure of the gut microbiome-immune system axis. Prenatal or postnatal modulation of this axis through some interventional strategies (including diet, probiotics and postbiotics), may lead to a positive gene-environment interaction with improvement of immune-modulatory effects and final positive effect on human health. In particular probiotics and postbiotics exerting pleiotropic regulatory actions on the gut-microbiome-immune system axis provide an innovative preventive and therapeutic strategy for many pediatric conditions.


KEY WORDS: Immunity, mucosal; Homeostasis; Dysbiosis

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