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Minerva Ortopedica e Traumatologica 2018 September;69(3 Suppl 1):72-9

DOI: 10.23736/S0394-3410.18.03872-9

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Adaptive-compensatory reactions in athletes with locomotor disorders at different stages of the multiyear training

Elvira RUMYANTSEVA , Albina DAYANOVA

Bashkir Institute of Physical Culture, Ural State University of Physical Culture, Ufa, Russia


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BACKGROUND: The article considers the issues of the adaptation of athletes with musculoskeletal injuries to intensive physical loads at the stages of the long-term training process, depending on the functional class of the Paralympic athletes.
METHODS: The study involved 28 highly qualified athletes with MSD, members of the national team (classes S5-8 with spinal cord injuries, with amputations of the extremities). To determine the state of the neuromuscular system, the bioelectrical activity of the athlete’s deltoid muscle was assessed using 2-channel digital neurophysiological complex for electromyography and evoked potentials with the Neuro-MVP.net software. Hemodynamics and functional state of the cardiovascular system were studied using “Valenta +” computer appliance.
RESULTS: After amputation of the lower extremities as a result of disinhibition of the sympathetic part of the autonomous nervous system, there are pronounced changes in the circulatory system, but properly planned adaptive sport trainings lead to improvement of the circulatory system. In athletes with TDSC, autonomic contour regulation is observed. Athletes with amputation have a significant decrease in the influence of sympathetic regulation and the contribution of central control levels to the regulation of heart rhythm. Adaptive sports activities reduce the time spent on the most rapidly conducting axons of the median nerve and the slowest conduction nerves, reduce the average latency.
CONCLUSIONS: The transition from a short-term stage to a stable long-term adaptation is characterized by the development of structural transformations in regulatory mechanisms and morphofunctional systems. However, the course changes in athletes with TDSC and amputations has cardinal differences, which must be taken into account at all stages of long-term sports training.


KEY WORDS: Disabled persons - Athletes - Health - Exercise - Physiology

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