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REVIEW   

Minerva Ortopedica e Traumatologica 2020 December;71(4):211-5

DOI: 10.23736/S0394-3410.20.03989-2

Copyright © 2020 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Smoke: a real problem for orthopedic surgery

Alessandro RAVA 1 , Massimo GIRARDO 2, Giorgia CARPEGNA 3, Pasquale CINNELLA 2

1 Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Orthopedic and Trauma Center, Molinette Hospital, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy; 2 Unit of Spine Surgery, Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Orthopedic and Trauma Center, Molinette Hospital, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy; 3 Department of Surgical Sciences, Dental School, University of Turin, Turin, Italy



The habit of smoking is very diffused all over the world and many diseases may be related to it. Current smokers are diffused among orthopedic patients; surgeon and patients must be aware about risks related to this habit in order to comprehend complications and results that may be derived by surgery. In this review we evaluated the epidemiology of complications and damages caused by smoke in orthopedic and traumatology.


KEY WORDS: Cigarette smoking; Smoking; Complications; Tobacco products; Electronic nicotine delivery systems

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