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Minerva Ortopedica e Traumatologica 2018 September;69(3 Suppl 1):64-71

DOI: 10.23736/S0394-3410.18.03875-4


lingua: Inglese

Effect of sports on the gastrointestinal functions


Kurgan State University, Kurgan, Russia


BACKGROUND: Regular trainings in different kinds of sports lead to pronounced morphological changes in the athlete’s body typical for this particular activity. Activation of the mechanisms of general adaptation to training loads results in changes of the spectrum providing the mobilization of both energetic and plastic reserves of the body. At the same time, the important role in the mobilization of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid exchange during muscular work belongs to the gastrointestinal tract with its ability to perform hydrolysis and absorption of essential nutrients and to influence metabolism through hormones and hormone-like substances of the intestinal hormone system.
METHODS: We studied the secretory function of the salivary, gastric, and pancreatic glands in 117 males aged 18-23 years with the help of gastric and gastric/duodenum intubation. We also performed the endoscopic examination of some volunteers to determine the number of endocrine cells producing gastrin, serotonin, and histamine. The study involved Candidates in Masters of Sports and Masters of Sports practicing cycling, skiing, athletics, and wrestling. The control group consisted of persons practicing physical education only within the university curriculum 4 hours per week. The secretory function of digestive glands was studied at rest, after 30-, 60-, and 90-minute physical load, and after the blockade of M-cholino and B-adrenoreceptors. In blood serum, we established values of insulin, gastrin, glucagon, aldosterone, ACTH, GH, FSH, LH, cortisol, and testosterone.
RESULTS: The highest reactivity was revealed in athletes involved in endurance sports, the lowest reactivity was revealed in fighters. The secretory mechanisms of gastric and pancreatic enzymes possess high resistance to muscle load, while the secretory mechanisms of hydrochloric acid, bicarbonates, and electrolytes demonstrate lower resistance. In persons with a high level of daily motor activity together with the differences in the reactivity of gastric glands, we revealed the increased number of G-cells, producing gastrin, some increase of Ec - cells producing serotonin and EcI - cells producing histamine. After physical load in athletes involved in endurance sports we revealed a high reactivity of the secretory system and the decreased evacuation from the stomach, while in athletes involved in speed-strength trainings we registered a decreased reactivity of the secretory system and the increased evacuation from the stomach.
CONCLUSIONS: High reactivity was revealed in athletes practicing endurance sports; low reactivity was registered in fighters and people with a low level of daily motor activity. Under physical load the production of polypeptide hormones with pronounced catabolic character increases contributing to the increase in pancreatic secretion and depression of gastric glands. We established that persons with the different level and character of daily motor activity have pronounced differenced in the speed of evacuation from the stomach. The most pronounced differences are revealed after physical load. In athletes involved in endurance sports, we revealed the decrease in the evacuation function and the increase in the reactivity of the secretory system. In athletes involved in speed-strength sports, we registered the decrease in the reactivity of the secretory system and the increase of the evacuation function.

KEY WORDS: Gastrointestinal tract - Exercise - Digestive system

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