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Minerva Ortopedica e Traumatologica 2018 September;69(3 Suppl 1):31-42

DOI: 10.23736/S0394-3410.18.03873-0


lingua: Inglese

Effects of short- and long-term adaptation to the middle-altitude hypoxia on the condition of athletes practicing cyclic and acyclic sports

Alexander P. ISAEV 1 , Vadim V. ERLIKH 1, Anastasia S. BAKHAREVA 1, Dmitry A. SARAYKIN 2, Vera I. PAVLOVA 2, Dmitry O. MALEEV 3

1 South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia; 2 South Ural State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Chelyabinsk, Russia; 3 Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia


BACKGROUND: Serious physical loads in the sport of high achievements lead to the necessity of improving the results connected with the activation of reserve capacities of the body. Such a system stimulator is the adaptation of blood cells and organs to the middle-altitude hypoxia, which results in the increase of the functions of main systems of the body. The objective of this research is to reveal the peculiarities of the adaption of highly qualified athletes involved in cyclic and acyclic sports to training loads in the conditions of middle-altitude using the laboratory control.
METHODS: We conducted tetrapolar measurement with the help of Kentavr KRS and MARG 10-01 (Microlux) computer systems, we also performed non-invasive blood test using AMP (Ukraine) analyzer. The data obtained was processed with the methods of statistical analysis (rank correlation analysis and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance).
RESULTS: We established that during one-year trainings in cyclic and acyclic sports the phase process of adaptation has the following sequence: searching (parameters of condition change multidirectionally); developing (parameters manifest physiologically adequate to the effects applied); forming (specialization of functions and a decrease in the quantity of parameters determining condition); stabilizing (provision of successful sport performance).
CONCLUSIONS: Short-term reactions of adaptation to middle altitude include the system of oxygen transport to lungs. During short-term adaptation to hypoxia, the mobilization of previous adaptive mechanisms takes place together with the formation of functional system responsible for adaptation. Under the influence of both adaptation to middle altitude and physical loads during the training process there is an increase in the parameters of red blood and the cardio-respiratory system, the economization of functions, the increase in aerobic power.

KEY WORDS: Physiological adaptation - Altitude - Athletes - Connective tissue - Hypoxia - Oxidative stress

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