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Minerva Obstetrics and Gynecology 2021 Jun 07

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-606X.20.04718-8


lingua: Inglese

Endometriosis and adverse pregnancy outcome

Felice SORRENTINO 1, Maristella DE PADOVA 1, Maddalena FALAGARIO 1, Maurizio N. D’ALTERIO 2, Attilio DI SPIEZIO SARDO 3, Luis ALONSO PACHECO 4, Jose T. CARUGNO 5, Luigi NAPPI 1

1 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy; 2 Department of Surgical Sciences, Division of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; 3 Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 4 Unidad de Endoscopia Ginecológica, Centro Gutenberg, Hospital Xanit International, Málaga, Spain; 5 Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA


INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is a gynecologic disease affecting approximately 10% of reproductive age women, around 21-47% of women presenting subfertility and 71-87% of women with chronic pelvic pain. Main symptoms are chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility that seem to be well controlled by oral contraceptive pill, progestogens, GnRh antagonists.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The aim of this review is to illustrate the modern diagnosis of endometriosis during pregnancy, to evaluate the evolution of endometriotic lesions during pregnancy and the incidence of adverse outcomes. Pregnancy in women with endometriosis does not always lead to disappearance of symptoms and decrease in the size of endometriotic lesions, but it may be possible to observe a malignant transformation of ovarian endometriotic lesions. Onset of complications may be caused by many factors: chronic inflammation, adhesions, progesterone resistance and a dysregulation of genes involved in the embryo implantation. As results, the pregnancy can be more difficult because of endometriosis related complications (spontaneous hemoperitoneum (SH), bowel complications…) or adverse outcomes like preterm birth, FGR, hypertensive disorders, obstetrics hemorrhages (placenta previa, abruptio placenta), miscarriage or cesarean section.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Due to insufficient knowledge about its pathogenesis, currently literature data are contradictory and do not show a strong correlation between endometriosis and these complications except for miscarriage and cesarean delivery.
CONCLUSIONS: Future research should focus on the potential biological pathways underlying these relationships in order to inform patients planning a birth about possible complications during pregnancy.

KEY WORDS: Endometriosis; Pregnancy; Miscarriage; Obstetric hemorrhages; Cesarean delivery

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