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Minerva Obstetrics and Gynecology 2022 December;74(6):504-15

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04919-8


lingua: Inglese

Stem cell therapy in the treatment of organic and dysfunctional endometrial pathology

Ettore CITTADINI 1 , Anna M. BRUCCULERI 1, Fabrizio QUARTARARO 1, Roberto VAGLICA 1, Vitale MICELI 2, Pier G. CONALDI 2

1 Fondazione per gli Studi sulla Riproduzione Umana, Clinica Candela, Palermo, Italy; 2 IRCCS ISMETT Research Department, Palermo, Italy

BACKGROUND: Intrauterine adhesions caused by postpartum curettage, spontaneous abortions, interrupted pregnancies, endometrial ablations, infections and inflammations, can lead to a loss of endometrial function, with consequent hypomenorrhea and infertility in women of reproductive age. In a non-negligible percentage of cases, the available surgical methods and hormone therapy, with sequential administration of estrogen and progesterone, are ineffective. In fact, severe damage to the basal layer of the endometrium causes the loss of endometrial cell precursors and leads to the failure of regeneration of the functional layer to which the endometrium is cyclically exposed. Today, many researchers are evaluating the use of stem cells of different origins as a potential therapy to restore endometrial function.
METHODS: Our interest has been focused on adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ADSCs) obtained by collecting subcutaneous adipose tissue and subsequently treating it with the MilliGraft® method. This procedure produces a cell suspension, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which includes ADSCs and soluble factors such as proteins and extracellular vesicles (exosomes). The SVF thus obtained was characterized in its cellular composition and its functional factors. Our clinical protocol for the future use of adipose tissue in endometrial regeneration in its different phases is presented.
RESULTS: The data obtained, even though they still require further support and implementation, show the regenerative properties of SVF obtained from adipose tissue using a mechanical method.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings can contribute to the development of cell therapies using stem cells of different derivations which are increasingly being utilized in the treatment of endometrial lesions from adherent or dysfunctional pathologies.

KEY WORDS: Therapy; Mesenchymal stem cells; Adipose tissue; Endometrium; Regeneration

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