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Original Article   

Minerva Medica 2022 Mar 22

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.22.07989-7


lingua: Inglese

Risk factors in developing retinal vein occlusion in subject with obstructive sleep apnea

Teresa DÍAZ de TERÁN 1, Paula GONZÁLEZ 1, Mónica GONZÁLEZ 1, Andrea CERVERÓ 2, Antonello NICOLINI 3, Paolo BANFI 3, Paolo SOLIDORO 4, José J. NAPAL 1, Carmen VALERO 1

1 Department of Internal Medicine. Hospital University Marqués de Valdecilla, Cantabria University, IDIVAL, Santander, Spain; 2 Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain; 3 Don Gnocchi Foundation IRCCS, Milan, Italy; 4 Division of Respiratory Diseases Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy


BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) have a higher risk of developing vascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the clinical profile of patients with OSA who develop Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO) compared with a population of OSA patients without RVO.
METHODS: We analysed patients with OSA diagnosed with RVO (21 cases; mean of age 61 (12) yrs. range 44-87 yrs. 67% men), belonging to a large cohort of people with long-term follow-up for RVO (up to 12 years). We compared them with 21 patients with OSA, without RVO, matched by age and gender, selected from the Sleep Unit Registry (control group).
RESULTS: There were no differences in the prevalence of arterial hypertension (AHT) or Diabetes mellitus (DM), but the RVO patients presented a higher diastolic blood pressure compared to controls (87.6±12.6 mmHg vs. 77.9±10.1 mm Hg respectively). The polygraphic parameters were similar in both groups. The Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (IHA) similar in both groups (30.4 ±20.9 RVO vs. 33.7 ± 22.1 controls). In addition, RVO patients had a less favourable lipid profile, with higher total cholesterol (218±52 mg/dL vs. 179±41 mg/dL), higher LDL cholesterol (139±47 mg/dL vs. 107±32 mg/dL) and higher atherogenic indices: LDL/HDL (2.78 ± 0.95 RVO vs. 2.03±0.67 controls) and total cholesterol / HDL (4.37± 1.08 vs. 3.45 ± 0.84). Among the cases, 81% had peripheral RVO (superior temporal branch in 20 out of 21 cases) and 19% had central RVO. 62% of the cases received intravitreal antiangiogenic therapy and dexamethasone implants and 33% received argon laser photocoagulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Poor control of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly dyslipidaemias, in patients with OSA may lead to the development of this ocular complication.

KEY WORDS: Obstructive sleep apnoea; Retinal vein occlusion; Lipids; Cardiovascular disease

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