Home > Riviste > Minerva Medica > Fascicoli precedenti > Articles online first > Minerva Medica 2022 Mar 10



Opzioni di pubblicazione
Per abbonarsi
Sottometti un articolo
Segnala alla tua biblioteca


Publication history
Per citare questo articolo


 Free accessfree

Minerva Medica 2022 Mar 10

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.22.07847-8


lingua: Inglese

Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety symptoms in COVID-19 outpatients with different levels of respiratory and ventilatory support in the acute phase undergoing three months follow up

Marta FERRARIS 1, Marina MAFFONI 2 , Vincenzo DE MARZO 3, Antonia PIEROBON 2, Marinella SOMMARUGA 4, Cristina BARBARA 1, Annalisa PORCILE 1, Carmelo RUSSO 1, Lucio GHIO 1, Piero CLAVARIO 1, Italo PORTO 3

1 Cardiac Rehabilitation Center of Genoa, Azienda Sanitaria Locale, ASL 3 Genovese, Genoa, Italy; 2 Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri, IRCCS, Psychology Unit of Montescano Institute, Pavia, Italy; 3 Cardiology Unit, DICATOV - Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department, IRCCS San Martino Hospital, Genoa, Italy; 4 Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCSS, Psychology Unit of Camaldoli Institute, Milano, Italy


BACKGROUND: The well-known COVID-19 pandemic totally transformed people’s lives, paving the way to various psychopathological symptoms. In particular, patients may experience a short- and long-term decreasing in their wellbeing. In this vein, the aim of this paper is to assess the COVID-19 patients’ psychopathological profile (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, distress, anxiety and depression symptoms), detecting possible differences linked to the ventilatory treatments.
METHODS: Outpatients who recovered from COVID-19 were asked to provide socio-demographic and clinical information, and to complete a brief psychological screening evaluation (Impact of Event Scale-Revised - IES-R, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - DASS-21).
RESULTS: Overall, after informed consent, 163 Italian patients took part in this research. Of them, 31,9% did not undergo any ventilatory therapy, 27,6% undertook oxygen therapy; 28,2% underwent noninvasive mechanical ventilation and 12.3% received invasive mechanical ventilation. Although no statistically significant differences were revealed among patients stratified by spontaneous breathing or ventilatory therapies, they reported statistically significant more depression (4.5+5.2 vs 3.5+3.2; p=.017) and anxiety (4.3+4.5 vs 2.4+2.6; p<.00001) symptoms than normative groups. Moreover, patients experiencing COVID-19 disease as a trauma, complained statistically significant higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms than who did not describe a clinically relevant traumatic experience (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, this study suggests to healthcare professionals to consider COVID-19 experience as a potential real trauma for patients and underlines the necessity to define patients’ psychopathological profile in order to propose tailored and effective preventive and supportive psychological interventions.

KEY WORDS: Post traumatic stress disorder; Distress; Anxiety; Depression; COVID-19

inizio pagina