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Minerva Medica 2021 Sep 29

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07740-5

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Isolated systolic hypertension of the young and sodium intake

Lanfranco D’ELIA, Pasquale STRAZZULLO

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, ESH Excellence Center of Hypertension, Federico II University of Naples Medical School, Naples, Italy


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INTRODUCTION: Isolated systolic hypertension is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Despite being the most common form of hypertension in the elderly, it is also detectable among young and middle-aged subjects.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is an important determinant of blood pressure, and high salt intake is associated with greater risk of hypertension and cardiovascular events. In most countries, habitual salt intake at all age categories largely exceeds the international recommendations.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Excess salt intake, often interacting with overweight and insulin resistance, may contribute to the development and maintenance of isolated systolic hypertension in young individuals by causing endothelial dysfunction and promoting arterial stiffness through a number of mechanisms, namely increase in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, sympathetic tone and salt-sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: This short review will focus on the epidemiological and clinical evidence, the mechanistic pathways and the cluster of pathophysiological factors whereby excess salt intake may favor the development and maintenance of isolated systolic hypertension in young people.


KEY WORDS: Salt; Sodium; Isolated systolic hypertension; Blood pressure; Young

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