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Minerva Medica 2021 Mar 12

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07448-6

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer’s biological continuum: clues for prediction and prevention of dementia

Alessandro MARTORANA 1 , Martina ASSOGNA 1, 2, Vincenzo DE LUCIA 1, Caterina MOTTA 2, Chiara G. BONOMI 1, Francesca BERNOCCHI 1, Martina G. DI DONNA 1, Giacomo KOCH 2

1 Memory Clinic, Policlinico Tor Vergata, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 2 Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Unit, IRCCS Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy


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Cognitive reserve is originally an epidemiological concept that encompasses individual abilities to cope with changes. It is considered the result of a balance between processes of cellular damage and repair, and its description raised much interest in predicting and preventing cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we discuss the concept of cognitive reserve in light of the recent definition of AD as a biological continuum and suggest that the protection of cognitive reserve may result from efficient synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Despite pathological changes of AD appearing very early during life, long before the onset of cognitive symptoms, different variables act together to keep repair mechanisms effective guaranteeing successful aging as long as environmental enrichment is maintained.


KEY WORDS: Alzheimer’s disease; Cognitive reserve; CSF; Amyloid Beta; Tau; Neuronal repair

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