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REVIEW  DEMENTIA PREVENTION: UPDATES AND NEW CHALLENGES 

Minerva Medica 2021 August;112(4):430-40

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07454-1

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Decreasing trend in the incidence and prevalence of dementia: a systematic review

Flavia MAYER 1, Giulia REMOLI 1, Ilaria BACIGALUPO 1, Ilaria PALAZZESI 1, Paola PISCOPO 2, Guido BELLOMO 1, Marco CANEVELLI 1, 3, Massimo CORBO 4, Nicola VANACORE 1, Eleonora LACORTE 1

1 National Center for Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy; 2 Department of Neurosciences, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy; 3 Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 4 Department of Neurorehabilitation Sciences, Casa di Cura Privata del Policlinico, Milan, Italy



INTRODUCTION: The progressive ageing of the population is one of the main socio-demographic phenomena, taking place at a global level. Several recent population-based studies conducted worldwide suggest that the age-specific risk of dementia may be changing in some countries and areas.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This systematic review was performed using the methodology proposed by the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews and reported following the PRISMA statement. A structured bibliographic search was performed on the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. All included studies were qualitatively assessed using the Methodological Evaluation of Observational REsearch (MORE).
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The bibliographic search yielded 2394 records. Three more articles were retrieved from other sources. A total of ten studies were included, five reported data on a possible reduction in the prevalence of dementia, and five reported data on a possible reduction in its incidence.
CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review focused on the recent observations of a possible decrease in the frequency of dementia and cognitive impairment in some Western countries (USA, UK, Sweden, the Netherlands, France, Iceland) between 1977 and 2014. The included studies have a high heterogeneity in terms of the clinical criteria used to diagnose dementia, and of the criteria used to define the clinical condition preceding dementia, such as isolated cognitive impairment. Moreover, the methodological quality with which they were conducted was also heterogeneous, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 using the MORE tool.


KEY WORDS: Epidemiology; Prevalence; Incidence; Systematic review; Dementia; Alzheimer disease

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