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Minerva Medica 2021 February;112(1):124-9

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07139-6


lingua: Inglese

Predictors of in-hospital mortality among patients with clostridium difficile infection: a multicenter study

Wisam SBEIT 1, 2, Anas KADAH 1, 2, Amir SHAHIN 1, 2, Nizar ABED 1, 2, Haya HADDAD 2, 3, Adel JABBOUR 2, 4, Helal SAID AHMAD 2, 3, Rinaldo PELLICANO 5, Tawfik KHOURY 1, 2, Amir MARI 1, 2

1 Department of Gastroenterology, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel; 2 Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, Israel; 3 Unit of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, The Nazareth Hospital EMMS, Nazareth, Israel; 4 Laboratory of Medicine, The Nazareth Hospital EMMS, Nazareth, Israel; 5 Unit of Gastroenterology, Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy

BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-associated mortality is a major global health concern. Several clinical and laboratory parameters have been linked to poor prognosis in patients with CDI. In the current study, we aimed to assess the rate of in-hospital mortality among Israeli CDI patients and to look for clinical and laboratory parameters associated to death.
METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective study enrolling all patients above 18-years old who were hospitalized for CDI or with diagnosis made during hospitalization in two regional, teaching hospitals in the north of Israel (Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya and the Nazareth Hospital, Nazareth, Israel), from January 1, 2015 until January 1, 2020. All files of eligible patients were reviewed for demographic (age, gender), medical history and laboratory tests.
RESULTS: Overall, we included in the study 180 patients, among them 56 died in hospital due to CDI (group A) while 124 survived (group B). The average age in groups A and B was 77.02±13 vs. 71.5±19.1, respectively. On univariate analysis, several clinical and laboratory parameters were associated with in-hospital mortality, including: advanced age, renal failure, antibiotics treatment while on treatment for CDI, need for mechanical ventilation, level of hemoglobin, white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophils count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, serum level of albumin, creatinine and C reactive protein. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, only 4 parameters showed statistically significant association with in-hospital mortality, including age (odds ratio [OR]: 6.97, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 4.94-8.72, P=0.003), renal failure (OR: 3.72, 95% CI: 1.22-11.24, P=0.02), WBC count (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.16, P=0.008), and lower albumin level (OR: 47.62, 95% CI: 10.31-200, P<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective, multicenter study, age, serum albumin level, leucocytes count, and renal failure were the main predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with CDI. Thus, antibiotic use should be weighed carefully in elderly comorbid patients, at increased risk of mortality from CDI .Prospective multicenter randomized studies investigating the effect of albumin infusion on in-hospital death of CDI patients are needed, thus enabling us to direct monitoring and treatment accordingly.

KEY WORDS: Clostridium difficile; Mortality; Hospitals

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