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Minerva Medica 2019 February;110(1):52-61

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.18.05897-4


lingua: Inglese

Treating prediabetes: why and how should we do it?

Tassia BRAGA 1 , Luiz G. KRAEMER-AGUIAR 2, Neil G. DOCHERTY 3, Carel W. LE ROUX 3, 4

1 UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2 Postgraduate Program in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology (FISCLINEX), State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3 Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute University College, Dublin, Ireland; 4 Investigative Science, Imperial College, London, UK

Prediabetes is the subclinical impairment in fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or both. The degree of impairment is between euglycemia and the hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Prediabetes is not considered benign, because it is a risk factor for T2DM but is also associated with micro and macrovascular complications. Lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise are first-line treatments. Medications can also play a role, as randomized controlled trials of biguanides (metformin) alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (Acarbose), inhibitors of pancreatic lipase (Orlistat), PPAR-gamma agonists (Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone), meglitinides (Nateglinide) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (Liraglutide) have all shown benefits. Bariatric surgery is another efficacious means of preventing T2DM in patients with prediabetes and obesity. Prediabetes in its various guises is a risk factor for the future development T2DM and diabetic complications. Importantly the prediabetic state is amenable to interventions that prevent/delay transition to overt T2DM. Knowledge gaps exist regarding how best to make prognostication highly sensitive and specific as to which patient will develop T2DM. Moreover, understanding of phenotype specific pathophysiology may add value to funding appropriate interventions for patients with prediabetes. Management of patients with prediabetes should be individualized based on the algorithms that predict phenotype specific risk and allow for the use of phenotype tailored interventions.

KEY WORDS: Prediabetic state - Life style - Phenotype - Medicine

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