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REVIEW  NEW INSIGHTS IN MOLECULAR HUMAN REPRODUCTION 

Minerva Ginecologica 2018 October;70(5):609-20

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4784.18.04271-5

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Crosstalk between gonadotropins and thyroid axis

Sara DE VINCENTIS 1, 2, Maria L. MONZANI 1, 2, Giulia BRIGANTE 1, 2

1 Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 2 Department of Medical Specialties, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Modena, OCSAE, Modena, Italy



Gonadotropins and thyroid hormones are essential, respectively, for reproduction and metabolism. The classical endocrinological approach is based on the detection of axes that start from the hypothalamus and arrive at the final effector organ, in this case gonads and thyroid. However, several clues suggest that these axes do not work in parallel, but they dialogue with each other. In this article, we review evidences demonstrating crosstalk between gonadotropins and thyroid axis. Firstly, there is an undeniable structural similarity of both hormones and receptors, maybe due to a common ancient origin. This structural similarity leads to possible interaction at the receptor level, explaining the influence of thyroid stimulating hormone on gonadal development and vice versa. Indeed, altered levels of thyroid hormones could lead to different disorders of gonadal development and function throughout entire life, especially during puberty and fertile life. We here report the current knowledge on this item both in males and in females. In particular, we deepen the interaction between thyroid and gonads in two situations in females: polycystic ovary syndrome, the most frequent cause of menstrual alteration, and pregnancy.


KEY WORDS: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone - Thyroid gland - Gonadotropins

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