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Minerva Endocrinology 2021 December;46(4):453-68

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6507.20.03198-3


lingua: Inglese

The endocrinology of sarcopenia and frailty

Vicky KAMWA 1, 2, 3 , Carly WELCH 3, Zaki K. HASSAN-SMITH 1, 2

1 Musculoskeletal Endocrinology Research Group, Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham, UK; 2 Academic Metabolic Bone Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK; 3 Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Sarcopenia describes low muscle mass and strength associated with ageing, whilst reduced physical performance indicates the severity of the condition. It can happen independently of other medical conditions and can be a key feature of the frailty phenotype. Frailty is a syndrome of increased vulnerability to incomplete resolution of homeostasis, following a stressor event. Researchers have described the implications of hypothalamic pituitary dysregulation in the pathogenesis of both entities. This review summarizes the recent evidence in this area as well as other endocrine factors such as insulin resistance and vitamin D status and outlines current research priorities. We conducted searches to PubMed and Embase databases for articles, reviews and studies reporting new data on the interaction between hormones of the endocrine system and frailty and/ or sarcopenia in the last 5 years. Interventional studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and animal studies were included. Clinical trials register was also searched to identify ongoing relevant studies. Studies have given us insights into the complex relationships between factors such as anabolic hormones, glucocorticoids and vitamin D on muscle strength and performance and their involvement in ageing phenotypes. However, robust randomized controlled trials are needed to consolidate existing evidence in humans and inform clinical practice. Current evidence supports hormone replacement in patients with confirmed deficiencies, to optimize health and prevent complications. Hormone replacement has limited use for age-related conditions. Current interest is focused on muscle/bone/fat interactions and health outcomes in “sarcopenic obesity.” A life-course approach to improving ‘health-span’ is advocated. Lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical activity have important interactions with body composition, physical function and metabolic outcomes. Large-scale clinical trials will determine the efficacy and long-term safety of hormone supplementation in the management of sarcopenia and frailty.

KEY WORDS: Anabolic agents; Endocrine system; Hypothalamic diseases; Frailty; Sarcopenia

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