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Minerva Dental and Oral Science 2022 December;71(6):318-23

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-6329.22.04768-4


lingua: Inglese

Oral immune-related adverse events caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors: a retrospective study

Michele DI COSOLA 1, Francesca SPIRITO 1 , Piermichele SARACINO 1, Vito C. CAPONIO 1, Victor DIAZ-FLORES GARCIA 2, Gabriele MADONNA 3, Paolo ASCIERTO 3, Lorenzo LO MUZIO 1, 4

1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Riuniti University Hospital of Foggia, Foggia, Italy; 2 Department of Preclinical Dentistry, School of Biomedical Sciences, European University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 3 Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori Pascale “Fondazione Pascale,” Naples, Italy; 4 C.I.N.B.O. (Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Bio-Oncologia), Chieti, Italy

BACKGROUND: Immune Checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are linked to a series of adverse systemic and/or oral side effects such as “stomatitis,” “oral inflammation” and “mucositis.” These oral lesions induced by target therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors are different from traditional lesions associated with chemo/radiotherapy and they have not yet been correctly characterized. This paper aims to report retrospectively the oral immune-related adverse events caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors.
METHODS: A table in electronic format was prepared and sent by e-mail to several clinical structures in order to collect, for each patient, anamnestic data, discretionary habits, systemic risk factors, the presence and number of comorbidities, and the characteristics of the oral lesions in the course of oncological therapy with anti-PD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab). Following the collection of anamnestic and clinical data relating to patients treated with anti-PD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab) and the detection of oral lesions, data analysis was carried out.
RESULTS: A number of 364 patients treated with nivolumab (209) and pembrolizumab (155), administered intravenously at a therapeutic dose were selected. There have been cases of oral adverse effects in treated patients. The oral adverse effects found fell into the categories of stomatitis, xerostomia, candidiasis and taste disturbances. Analyzing the incidence of oral lesions in patients undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, there was no significant difference between the two drugs examined.
CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are certainly needed to catalog, focus and identify in advance the adverse effects, including oral ones, in patients treated with ICI type PD1/PDL-1. It is necessary, for the benefit of patients, to pay particular attention to the adverse effects in order to recognize, treat and possibly modulate the therapy with an adequate assessment of the cost/benefit ratio and quality of life.

KEY WORDS: Therapy; Mouth mucosa; Adverse effects

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