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Minerva Cardiology and Angiology 2022 August;70(4):502-21

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5683.21.05847-6


lingua: Inglese

Adamantiades-Behçet disease: from clinical heterogeneity to diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic

Giusto TREVISAN 1, Sara TREVISINI 2, Serena BERGAMO 3, Nicola di MEO 1, 2, Serena BONIN 1 , Maurizio RUSCIO 2, Marino MARINI 4, Andrea GAGGINO 1, 2, Flavia URBAN 2, Lorenzo PASCAZIO 1, 2

1 Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; 2 Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata Giuliano Isontina (ASUGI), Trieste, Italy; 3 AULSS 2 Marca Trevigiana, Ca’ Foncello Hospital, Treviso, Italy; 4 Private Practitioner, Trieste, Italy

Adamantiades-Behçet disease (ABD) is a systemic disease with vasculitis, characterized by recurrent oral aphthosis and ocular, cutaneous, articular, vascular, cardiopulmonary manifestations and it is mainly found in the territories of the antique “silk road”. ABD pathogenesis remains unknown although genetic, infectious and environmental factors seem to be implicated in the development of the disease, which is considered an auto-inflammatory condition. COVID-19 infection can present some symptoms, in particular at the level of oral and pulmonary mucosa, which require a differential diagnosis with ABD. Furthermore, the immunological alterations of this disease, and the drugs used for its treatment could influence the infection by COVID-19, and its clinical evolution. Nevertheless, vaccination anti-COVID-19 is recommended in ABD patients. The most commonly used diagnostic criteria for ABD are those established in 2014 by the International Team for the Revision of the International Criteria for BD (ITR-ICBD). Furthermore, criteria for disease severity according to the Overall Damage Index of Behçet’s Syndrome (BODI) have recently been proposed in order to quantify the severity of the disease as well as the evolution during follow-up. In ABD patients it is mandatory to investigate on the presence of active/latent tuberculosis, because of the common organ involvement, such as eyes and bowel. ABD has a high morbidity and low mortality, sometimes linked to the rupture of an arterial aneurysm and/or neurological complications. This article is based on a general review on ABD ranging from the history of ABD to possible causes and clinical manifestations. A specific section has been dedicated to the COVID-19 pandemic.

KEY WORDS: Behçet syndrome; History; Etiology; COVID-19

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