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Minerva Cardiology and Angiology 2022 June;70(3):393-402

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5683.22.05891-4


lingua: Inglese

The connubium among diabetes, chronic kidney disease and atrial fibrillation

Michele MAGNOCAVALLO 1, Giampaolo VETTA 1, Sara TRIVIGNO 1, Marco V. MARIANI 1, Luca DI LULLO 2, Antonio BELLASI 3, Domenico G. DELLA ROCCA 4, Paolo SEVERINO 1, Agostino PIRO 1, Giuseppe GIUNTA 1, Raffaele QUAGLIONE 1, Carlo LAVALLE 1

1 Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrology, Anesthesiology and Geriatric Sciences, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 2 Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, L. Parodi-Delfino Hospital, Colleferro, Rome, Italy; 3 Unit of Innovation and Brand Reputation, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy; 4 Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute, St. David’s Medical Center, Austin, TX, USA

The burden of cardiovascular comorbid conditions was significantly higher in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF); most of them are affected by hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). DM represents a well-known risk factor for the development and maintenance of AF; the coexistence of DM and AF is also associated with an increased risk of mortality and stroke. Moreover, DM is currently the main cause of renal impairment and the leading cause of dialysis in the world. The hyperglycemia is responsible for inducing redox imbalance and both systemic and intrarenal inflammation, playing a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. Long-term thromboembolic preventive therapy in AF patients with DM and CKD may be more challenging because both DM and CKD have been independently associated with an increased thromboembolic and bleeding risk, which results from the prothrombotic and proinflammatory status. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are characterized by numerous critical issues such as a narrow therapeutic window, increased tissue calcification and an unfavorable risk/benefit ratio with low stroke prevention effect and augmented risk of major bleeding. On the other hand, Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) are currently contraindicated in dialysis patients even if mounting evidence suggests that they may have a nephroprotective role in AF patients with DM and CKD. Consequently, the choice of anticoagulant therapy in this setting of patient seems to be very challenging. The aim of this review is to investigate the role of DOACs in diabetic patients and its nephroprotective role by reviewing the current literature.

KEY WORDS: Atrial fibrillation; Diabetes mellitus; Renal insufficiency; Factor Xa inhibitors

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