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Rivista sulle Malattie del Cuore e dei Vasi

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Angiology and Vascular Pathology
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Minerva Cardioangiologica 2018 Apr 11

DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4725.18.04699-6


lingua: Inglese

Periprocedural and perioperatory management of patients with tricuspid valve disease

Fabrizio MONACO 1 , Ambra L. DI PRIMA 1, Monica DE LUCA 1, Gaia BARUCCO 1, Alberto ZANGRILLO 1, 2

1 Departement of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 2 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy


Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common valvular lesion which may affect morbidity and mortality. It can be related to an intrinsic abnormality of the tricuspid valve leaflets (organic) or secondary to annular dilatation (functional). Often organic and functional TR coexist in the same patient. A long standing TR is associated with ascites, congestive hepatopathy, peripheral edema, renal failure, and abdominal fullness which significantly affect the outcome. In particular, the perioperative course may be complicated due to both the presence of comorbidities and the development of a severe postoperative right ventricle (RV) dysfunction. In fact, the TR may conceal a preoperative RV dysfunction due to a backflow in in the right atrium, which becomes overt only after the TV repair/replacement (afterload mismatch). In light of this, an appropriate medical treatment before surgery may improve the performance of the RV, maximizing the result of the elective surgical therapy. The perioperative optimization should reduce the right atrial and ventricle overload, decrease the pulmonary vascular resistances, improve RV contractility and treat aggressively the arrhythmias. In doing so, the following rules should be considered: careful fluid administration, β1-agonists favored over α-agonists to treat hemodynamic instability, and maintenance of a normal-to- elevated heart rate. Since the TV repair/replacement need mechanical ventilation in both open and percutaneous surgery, a careful volume and pharmalogical management should be adopted to counteract the detrimental effect of the mechanical ventilation on the top of an already dysfunctional RV. In fact in the context of RV failure the cardiac output is strictly dependent on the preload and the increase of the intrathoracic pressure, reducing the venous return, may lead to acute heart failure. The intraoperative administration of volume and vasoactive drugs, titrated on the basis of the transesophageal echocardiography, permit to support the RV intraoperatively. Paracorporeal mechanical hemodynamic support should be always available as “bail out” in the event of intractable RV failure. In conclusion the patients undergoing TV surgery are complex and only a detailed anesthesiological and surgical workup may decrease the perioperative mortality and morbidity.

KEY WORDS: Tricuspid valve regurgitation - Perioperative optimization - Right ventricle dysfunction - Pulmonary hypertension - Hemodynamic support - Anesthetic management

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Publication History

Article first published online: April 11, 2018
Manuscript accepted: April 4, 2018
Manuscript received: April 2, 2018

Per citare questo articolo

Monaco F, Di Prima AL, De Luca M, Barucco G, Zangrillo A. Periprocedural and perioperatory management of patients with tricuspid valve disease. Minerva Cardioangiol 2018 Apr 11. DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4725.18.04699-6

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