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Minerva Anestesiologica 2023 March;89(3):206-16

DOI: 10.23736/S0375-9393.22.16863-X

Copyright © 2022 THE AUTHORS

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC BY-NC 4.0 license which allows users to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon the manuscript, as long as this is not done for commercial purposes, the user gives appropriate credits to the original author(s) and the source (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license and indicates if changes were made.

lingua: Inglese

Noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring in central nervous system infections

Signe A. WOLTHERS 1 , Cecilie P. ENGELHOLM 1, Bülent USLU 1, Christian T. BRANDT 2

1 Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Zealand University Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark; 2 Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Zealand University Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark

Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring constitutes an important part of the management of traumatic brain injury. However, its application in other brain pathologies such as neuroinfections like acute bacterial meningitis is unclear. Despite focus on aggressive, prompt treatment, morbidity and mortality from acute bacterial meningitis remain high. Increased ICP is well-known to occur in severe neuroinfections. The increased ICP compromise cerebral perfusion pressure and may ultimately lead to brain stem herniation. Therefore, controlling the ICP could also be important in acute bacterial meningitis. However, risk factors for complications due to invasive monitoring among these patients may be significantly increased due to higher age and levels of comorbidity compared to the traumatic brain injury patient from which the ICP treatment algorithms are developed. This narrative review evaluates the different modalities of ICP monitoring with the aim to elucidate current status of non-invasive alternatives to invasive monitoring as a decision tool and eventually monitoring. Non-invasive screening using ultrasound of the optical nerve sheath, transcranial doppler, magnetic resonance imaging or preferably a combination of these modalities, provides measurements that can be used as a decision guidance for invasive ICP measurement. The available data do not support the replacement of invasive techniques for continuous ICP measurement in patients with increased ICP. Non-invasive modalities should be taken into consideration in patients with neuroinfections at low risk of increased ICP.

KEY WORDS: Meningitis; Infections; Central nervous system; Intracranial pressure

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