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ORIGINAL ARTICLE   Free accessfree

Minerva Anestesiologica 2021 December;87(12):1309-19

DOI: 10.23736/S0375-9393.21.15559-2


lingua: Inglese

Comparison of two regional citrate anticoagulation modalities for continuous renal replacement therapy by a prospective analysis of safety, workload, effectiveness, and cost

Tiziano CASSINA, Michele VILLA , Annalisa SOLDANI-AGNELLO, Piergiorgio ZINI

Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Cardiocentro Ticino, Lugano, Switzerland

BACKGROUND: Currently, regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is the preferred approach for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), and several RCA protocols are commercially available. This study was aimed at comparing two RCA modalities for CRRT in terms of safety, workload, effectiveness, and costs.
METHODS: We prospectively evaluated two different RCA approaches in patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) who needed CRRT. Patients with acute liver failure were excluded. We compared a hypertonic sodium-citrate solution 136 mmol/L added before the filter as anticoagulant during bicarbonate continuous hemodialysis (RCA-CVVHD) versus citrate-buffered replacement fluid 13.3 mmol/L infused by predilution setting in continuous venovenous hemofiltration (RCA-CVVH). Alkalosis, calcium homeostasis, nursing workload, filter lifespan, urea-creatinine metabolic control, and costs were recorded.
RESULTS: Forty-five and 31 patients who underwent RCA-CVVH and RCA-CVVHD, respectively, were included. Alkalosis-free time distributions were significantly different in favor of a higher alkalosis incidence in the RCA-CVVHD group (log-rank test χ2(1)=8.18, P=0.004). Multivariable analysis showed that RCA-CVVHD was associated with a longer filter lifespan (HR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.28-0.78), higher total cost (1362 CHF [782-1901] vs. 976 CHF [671-1353], P<0.001), and higher number of anticoagulation adjustments (9 [IQR, 4-14] vs. 2 [IQR, 1-4]). The mean urea and creatinine reduction ratios at the first 24 hours were significantly higher in the RCA-CVVHD group. Calcium homeostasis and filter downtime were similar in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-filter hypertonic sodium-citrate solution (136 mmol/L) results in longer filter patency and improves depuration effectiveness. However, compared to RCA-CVVHF, it causes metabolic alkalosis and increases nursing interventions and cost.

KEY WORDS: Continuous renal replacement therapy; Sodium citrate; Acute kidney injury; Cost and cost analysis; Hospital nursing staff

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