Home > Riviste > Minerva Anestesiologica > Fascicoli precedenti > Minerva Anestesiologica 2017 October;83(10) > Minerva Anestesiologica 2017 October;83(10):1034-41



Publication history
Per citare questo articolo


Rivista di Anestesia, Rianimazione, Terapia Antalgica e Terapia Intensiva

Official Journal of the Italian Society of Anesthesiology, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care
Indexed/Abstracted in: Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch), Scopus
Impact Factor 2,623




Minerva Anestesiologica 2017 October;83(10):1034-41

DOI: 10.23736/S0375-9393.17.11782-7


lingua: Inglese

Ultrasound-determined landmarks decrease pressure pain at epidural insertion site in immediate post-partum period

Denise WILKES 1 , Caroline MARTINELLO 1, Felipe A. MEDEIROS 1, Rovnat BABAZADE 1, Erin HURWITZ 2, Naveed KHANJEE 1, Prashanth S. IYER 1, Paul LEARY 1, Rakesh B. VADHERA 1

1 Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; 2 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA


BACKGROUND: Women have blamed epidurals for their post-partum back pain for decades. Survey-based studies have shown similar incidence of chronic back pain between women who delivered with epidurals compared to those who did not. However, epidural insertion site pain has yet to be evaluated by a quantitative measure: pressure pain threshold (PPT). Algometer measured PPT has been shown to be accurate and reproducible in acute, chronic, and postoperative pain studies. This study determines the effect of ultrasound-based landmarks on the PPT at the epidural insertion site in the post-partum period.
METHODS: Participants were randomized into either the ultrasound or sham groups. In addition, a non-randomized control group (no epidural) participated. Ultrasound of the lumbar region was used to mark mid intervertebral levels in the US group but not in the sham group. Epidural were placed using the marks in the US group or palpated bony landmarks in the sham group. PPT at each intervertebral space measured before and after the use of epidural.
RESULTS: Epidural placement did significantly decreased PPT in US (68%) and US sham (79%) groups and less in the control group (21%). US group showed decreased PPT only at insertion site whereas US sham group also showed decreased PPT at insertion site and adjacent levels.
CONCLUSIONS: We showed that epidural placed with ultrasound-determined landmarks not only improves the success of epidural placement but also minimizes the number of intervertebral levels with decreased PPT.

KEY WORDS: Ultrasonography - Analgesia, epidural - Pain

inizio pagina

Publication History

Issue published online: October 5, 2017
Article first published online: April 11, 2017
Manuscript accepted: April 1, 2017
Manuscript revised: March 1, 2017
Manuscript received: November 1, 2016

Per citare questo articolo

Wilkes D, Martinello C, Medeiros FA, Babazade R, Hurwitz E, Khanjee N, et al. Ultrasound-determined landmarks decrease pressure pain at epidural insertion site in immediate post-partum period. Minerva Anestesiol 2017;83:1034-41. DOI: 10.23736/S0375-9393.17.11782-7

Corresponding author e-mail