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International Angiology 2018 October;37(5):335-45

DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.18.03948-2

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

The role of psychopathology in perceiving, reporting and treating intermittent claudication: a systematic review

Agnieszka SLIWKA 1, Mariusz FURGAL 2, Pawel MAGA 3, Lukasz DRELICHARZ 4, Piotr MIKA 5, Tomasz WŁOCH 5, Roman NOWOBILSKI 1

1 Institute of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; 2 Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; 3 Department of Angiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; 4 Angiomed, Krakow, Poland; 5 Unit of Rehabilitation in Internal Diseases, Department of Clinical Rehabilitation, University School of Physical Education, Krakow, Poland



INTRODUCTION: The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the association between mental health and intermittent claudication (IC) perception, reporting and treatment in subjects with peripheral artery disease (PAD).
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature searches of experimental and observational studies published until February 1st, 2016 were conducted using the following electronic databases: Medline/PubMed and Embase. The selection criteria for the studies included a population of patients diagnosed with peripheral artery disease who reported symptoms of intermittent claudication and were assessed for any psychopathological states (depression, anxiety, mood and personality disorders), which in turn were analyzed with regard to the following: IC severity, symptom perception and reporting, patients’ quality of life, treatment compliance and its effectiveness. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration’s tool and the Newcastle Ottawa Scales. The strength of recommendations was graded according to GRADE system.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The literature search identified 1598 citations, of which 13 studies with varying risk of bias were included in the review. Depression, anxiety, and personality types were described in more than 800 patients with peripheral arterial disease who suffered from intermittent claudication. With regard to IC perception and reporting, individuals with higher levels of depression had lower levels of pain acceptance, were more dissatisfied with their function and control over function and had a poorer quality of life. In the case of the type D personality, the results were not consistent. Studies assessing the influence of psychopathology on IC severity and treatment also showed discrepant results. Some studies indicated no differences between type D and non-type D patients with regard to the Ankle Brachial Index as well as pain free (PFWD) and maximal walking distances (MWD). On the other hand, others revealed that type D and depressed patients terminated 6MWT prematurely due to the onset of symptoms and experienced a greater annual decline in 6-minute walk distance, fast walking velocity and short physical performance battery. With regard to treatment adherence, patients with no mental problems made the best recoveries. Hostility, aggressiveness and affect-liability were the greatest obstacles to compliance.
CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorders might influence the way in which the symptoms of the disease are reported, coped with, and treated. However, the results of the review preclude recommending a routine psychological examination as one of basic diagnostic procedures in patients with peripheral artery disease suffering from IC.


KEY WORDS: Atherosclerosis - Anxiety - Depression - Personality

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