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Gazzetta Medica Italiana - Archivio per le Scienze Mediche 2019 October;178(10):769-74

DOI: 10.23736/S0393-3660.18.03952-9

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Shooting performance under training load in biathlon

Ștefan A. MARTIN 1 , Roxana M. HADMAȘ 2

1 Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tîrgu Mureș, Tîrgu Mureș, Romania; 2 Medical Department III, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tîrgu Mureș, Tîrgu Mureș, Romania



BACKGROUND: Biathlon shooting defines competitive effort. The results recorded over the past 10 years monitored positive changes in the skiing pace, due to an improved equipment and an enhanced training methodology. However, few improvements were identified in shooting performances.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Braşov, Romania, on a group of 7 biathlon competitive male athletes, during 2017-2018 season. The analysis was carried out over 13 training days, including 390 km and 455 shootings in the polygon, performed between 65-85% HRmax, in order to analyse shooting accuracy (shooting%; number of shootings out of 5).
RESULTS: Shooting analysis indicated that the shooting ratio increased in standing (≥80%) as against prone positioning (<80%). Thus, increased pace related changes in shooting accuracy, resulting a reduction in shooting%, to 90% (4 out of 5 targets) (P=0.0255, r=-0.25, CI95%=-0.46 to -0.02). Improved shooting% was associated with minimal HR% changes during standing (P=0.0094). Many influence factors were related to prone positioning analysis. Among them, positive difference level (+50m/0.5km) imposed speed reduction (≤16 km/h), an increased heart rate during shooting (≥75% of HRmax) and a reduction in shooting% (≤80%) as against the standing position.
CONCLUSIONS: No improved shooting heart rate range was identified during submaximal activity, as a result of high HR variability within the study group. The main changes, over training activity, can be attributed to shooting technique. A significant reduction in HR, during interval shooting, will influence the final result which can be confirmed though standing and prone shootings report.


KEY WORDS: Sports; Heart rate; Adaptation, physiological

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