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Minerva Gastroenterology 2021 Apr 01

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5985.21.02860-9

Copyright © 2021 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Implications of gut microbiota in autoimmune liver diseases

Qiwei QIAN, Wei HE, Ruqi TANG, Xiong MA

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Shanghai, China


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Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) is a group of immune-mediated liver inflammatory diseases with three major forms including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Interaction of both genetic and environmental factors leads to the breakdown of self-tolerance, hence resulting in hyper-responsive of autoantibodies and aggressive autoreactive immune cells. Genetic studies have identified dozens of risk loci associated with initiation and development of AILD. However, the role of exogenous factors remains unclear. Recently, both infectious and inflammatory diseases have been associated with microbiota, which colonizes multiple mucosal surfaces and participates in human physiological process and function in immune system, particularly influencing liver and biliary system via gut-liver axis. Emerging evidence on the role of gut microbiota has expanded our knowledge of AILD in both pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets, along with putative diagnosis biomarkers. Herein we review the relationship between host and gut microbiota, discuss their potential roles in disease onset and progression, and summarize the compositional and functional alterations of the microbiota in AILD. We also highlight the microbiotabased therapeutics such as antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).


KEY WORDS: Microbiome; Autoimmune hepatitis; Primary biliary cholangitis; Primary sclerosing cholangitis; Gut dysbiosis

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