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Minerva Gastroenterology 2023 September;69(3):365-73

DOI: 10.23736/S2724-5985.21.03002-3


lingua: Inglese

Can esophageal symptoms be associated with sleep disorders in esophageal rare diseases?. A prospective case-control study across achalasia, eosinophilic esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease

Mario GAGLIARDI 1 , Paola IOVINO 1, Domenico GARGANO 2, Claudio ZULLI 3, Luigi FORTINO 1, Antonella SANTONICOLA 1

1 Unit of Gastroenterology, Scuola Medica Salernitana Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy; 2 Allergy Unit, San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Avellino, Italy; 3 Division of Gastroenterology, G. Fucito Hospital, AOU Ruggi d’Aragona, Salerno, Italy

BACKGROUND: The association between sleep disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been the subject of several studies; however, quality of sleep has been under investigated in adult patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and achalasia (Ach). This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbances in patients with EoE and Ach compared to GERD patients and their associations with esophageal symptoms.
METHODS: Thirty Ach patients and 20 EoE patients were consecutively enrolled and compared to a control group of 46 GERD patients. All patients underwent a standardized questionnaire investigating the intensity-frequency scores (from 0 to 6) of esophageal symptoms, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to assess sleep quality, a SF-36 survey to investigate health-related quality of life (both physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scales), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to assess the presence of depression and anxiety.
RESULTS: The prevalence of sleep disturbances was 66.7% in Ach, 50% in EoE, and 60% in GERD patients (P=0.5). PCS and MCS significantly correlated with depression and anxiety levels. Ach patients showed significantly higher intensity-frequency scores of dysphagia for solids (Scheffè P<0.001) and liquids (Scheffè P<0.001) than EoE and GERD patients. No differences were found in the intensity-frequency scores of the esophageal symptoms among the three groups. There was a significant association between worst quality of sleep and higher intensity-frequency scores of regurgitation.
CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbances are common with Ach and EoE, similar to GERD patients. Moreover, there is a significant association between regurgitation, a typical GERD symptom, and poor quality of sleep, independent from diagnosis.

KEY WORDS: Esophageal achalasia; Eosinophilic esophagitis; Gastroesophageal reflux; Sleep quality; Sleep wake disorders; Quality of life

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