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Chirurgia 2019 June;32(3):105-9

DOI: 10.23736/S0394-9508.18.04802-7


lingua: Inglese

Outcomes with intra-aortic balloon pump in high risk cardiac surgery patients


Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zagazig University Hospital, Faculty of Human Medicine, Zagazig, Egypt

BACKGROUND: In high-risk cardiac surgical patients, the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is the most frequently used tool for temporary mechanical circulatory support during the perioperative phase. The effects of IABP are an increase in diastolic blood pressure, an improvement in coronary perfusion and a reduction of ventricular afterload, so it increases the stroke volume and cardiac output. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the preoperative use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) on the outcome of high-risk patients that were subjected to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
METHODS: From June 2009 to June 2011. Group of 100 patients considered as high-risk patients were subjected to elective bypass cardiac surgery at our center. Forty patients subjected to preoperative IABP as a prophylactic measure and 60 patients were not subjected to IABP. This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data. The definition of High risk was the presence of two or more known risk factors. The patient’s outcome is compared regarding the predicted mortality of the Euro SCORE. The preoperative effect of IABP on the outcome, mortality and 30 days follow-up was statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: Forty patients subjected to preoperative IABP as prophylactic measure due to higher Euro SCORE-predicted mortality than other 60 patients did not subject to IABP (60% vs. 40%, P≤0.05). Seventy patients (70%) were male while (30%) were female with a mean age of 58.62±9.65 years. Patients subjected to preoperative IABP had increased a percentage of hospital mortality (P≤0.05) but this percentage is relatively lower than predicted by Euro SCORE. Patients subjected to preoperative IABP had lower rate of postoperative complication (acute kidney insult (P=0.045), cardiac surgical intensive care unit (CSICU) stay (P=0.032) and decrease the need for postoperative inotrope (P=0.046) compared to patients without preoperative IABP use. Other complications postoperative were low and similar in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that patients have high-risk CABG, the preoperative IABP in this group with higher predicted mortality was associated with a relative reduction than predicted by Euro SCORE. The preoperative IABP in this group has a reliable and acceptable outcome on postoperative complications.

KEY WORDS: Intra-aortic balloon pumping - Cardiac surgical procedures - Coronary artery bypass

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