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REVIEW  EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INFRA-INGUINAL ARTERIAL DISEASE 

The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 2018 August;59(4):495-503

DOI: 10.23736/S0021-9509.18.10583-0

Copyright © 2018 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA

lingua: Inglese

Less is more: the “As Less As Reasonably Achievable Stenting” (ALARAS) strategy in the femoropopliteal area

Koen DELOOSE , Joren CALLAERT

Department of Vascular Surgery, Sint-Blasius Hospital, Dendermonde, Belgium


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Although evidence supports that the performance of drug coated balloons seems to be lesion complexity independent, it is quite clear that in long lesions, severe calcified lesions and chronic total occlusions, the bail out stent ratio is very high and that the “leaving nothing behind” strategy remains a dream in a lot of our daily cases. On the other side of the spectrum, “full metal jackets” of nitinol stents are creating even more problems. Stent fractures, intimal hyperplasia and reintervention difficulties complicate the recurrent vascular disease treatment. The go-between with the “As Less As Reasonably Achievable Stenting” strategy (ALARAS), earlier named with a bad name “spot” stenting, seems the most attractive one. Scaffolding where needed and allowing freedom of vessel motion will lead to reduction of target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates. New technologies like the Tack Endovascular System and the Vascuflex MultiLOC MSD are responding very well tot this idea. Animal tests and pivotal trials (like TOBA and LOCOMOTIVE trials) already showed with both devices good results in terms of patencies and freedom from target lesion revascularizations, and with less metallic implants. Primary patency at 12 months was 76.4% and 85.7% in the TOBA and LOCOMOTIVE trial respectively. Target lesion revascularization at 12 months was 10.5% and 9.3%, respectively. In an era of “leaving nothing behind,” post-angioplasty dissections are more frequent than ever. With a direct link between lesion complexity, dissections and increase of TLR rates, scaffolding solutions remains essential. The ALARAS strategy tries to leave as little metal behind as possible, minimizing the risk of stent fractures, allowing freedom of vessel motion and reducing TLR rates. However, the lack of clear strategies and guidelines in where to scaffold which kind of dissections is the biggest issue at the moment. More objective classifications based on newer types of imaging like intraoperative ultrasound, intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and/or fractional flow reserve pressure wire gradient measurements will potentially offer more solutions in this interesting field.


KEY WORDS: Endovascular procedures - Stents - Hyperplasia

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